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28 June 2023, Volume 41 Issue 3
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  • Crop Science ·Horticulture
    Comparative Study on Quality Characters of Brewing and Non-Brewing Wheat Varieties in Sichuan Province
    WU Lijuan, SHEN Shian, WANG Junqiang, HU Xinkun
    2023, 41(3):  389-392.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202211200
    Abstract ( 475 )   PDF (1489KB) ( 160 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study was conducted to compare and analyze the difference of quality traits between Sichuan brewing and non-brewing wheat cultivars in Sichuan aiming at providing theoretical basis for breeding brewing wheat. 【Method】 Three brewing and three non-brewing wheat varieties each were used as test materials. Starch content and crude protein contents were determined by employing starch detection kit method and Kjeldahl nitrogen determination method,and hardness index and other quality traits were also detected by using grain hardness tester and near-infrared spectrometer. 【Result】 The average total starch content of the three brewing wheat was more than 60%,and the average amylopectin content accounted for more than 70% of the total starch content,which was significantly higher than that of the three non-brewing wheat. Their average crude protein content was less than 13%, which was only significantly different from that of Neimai 101,but the hardness index and sedimentation value were significantly lower than those of the three non-brewing wheat. In addition,the water absorption,stable time and wet gluten content were significantly lower than those of some non-brewing wheat. These results indicated that all three brewing wheat cultivars belonged to weak gluten wheat. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that high quality weak gluten wheat with crude protein content less than 13% was suitable for selection as brewing wheat variety.
    Effects of Planting and Turning Green Manure in Winter under Nitrogen Fertilizer Reduction on Corn Grain Quality
    LI Junzhao, LI Hansong, CAI Yan, LI Bing, HE Chuan, LI Zhong, ZHENG Zuping
    2023, 41(3):  393-398.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202206127
    Abstract ( 98 )   PDF (1505KB) ( 153 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study purposes to explore the effects of planting and plowing winter green manure on corn grain quality for two consecutive years under 20% nitrogen reduction,so as to provide the basis for the development of green and sustainable agriculture. 【Method】 Six treatments including conventional fertilization (NF),application of reduced nitrogen fertilizer (RF) by 20%,and application of reduced nitrogen fertilizer by 20% in winter were conducted,including single Vicia villosa Roth var. (V),Raphanus sativus L. (R),Lolium perenne L. (L) and mixed Vicia villosa Roth var./Raphanus sativus L./Lolium perenne L. (B) which were ploughed into the soil in full amount. 【Result】 After nitrogen reduction,the contents of crude protein,starch,fat and ash,Ca,Mg and Fe in corn grain were significantly reduced,while the amino acid content was increased to a small extent. The crude protein,starch and fat contents in the corn grain of the two treatments (R,B) that planted and turned over Raphanus sativus L. on the basis of nitrogen reduction were increased,with the R being the most significant,with each indicator increased by 32.3,3.4 and 21.3 percentage points respectively as compared with the NF (P<0.05). Applying green manure could increase the content of amino acids in corn grain and promote the composition balance. Compared with the NF,the ash content of corn grain in each green manure treatment was increased by 0.7-2.9 percentage points,the Ca and Cu contents were increased by 19.4-66.1 and 13.0-42.0 percentage points, respectively. The Mn and Zn contents were basically unchanged,but the Mg and Fe contents were decreased in each green manure treatment. 【Conclusion】 Planting and turning over green manure could effectively reduce the decrease of organic and mineral nutrients in corn grain after nitrogen fertilizer application reduction,and the effect of planting and turning over green manure was more prominent,which laid the foundation for quality improvement and efficiency increase in corn production.
    Identification of FtCIPK in Fagopyrum tataricum and Gene Expression Responding to Drought and High Calcium Stress
    GUAN Zhixiu, WEI Chunyu, LI Mei, REN Bing, REN Huanhuan, WANG Yan, LIANG Chenggang
    2023, 41(3):  399-408.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209143
    Abstract ( 277 )   PDF (4256KB) ( 94 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to provide scientific reference for exploring the mechanism of drought and high calcium tolerance.of calcineurin B-like protein kinase gene(FtCIPK)in Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum L.). 【Method】 Tartary buckwheat FtCIPK genes were analyzed by employing bioinformatics method. The drought stress (15%PEG),high calcium stress (0.15 mol/L CaCl2) and combined drought and high calcium stress (15%PEG +0.15 mol/L CaCl2) were performed to analyze the gene expression pattern of FtCIPK gene under abiotic stresses. 【Result】 A total of five FtCIPK genes in Tartary buckwheat were identified, and they were located on chromosomes Ft3 (2),Ft5 (1) and Ft6 (2),respectively, by screening of 8 chromosomes. The cDNA length of FtCIPK were 1 323-1 467 bp,encoding 440-488 amino acids, of which protein sequences were highly conserved and contained protein kinase and NAF domain. Under drought stress,FtCIPK11 was significantly down-regulated at 8 h and 24 h,FtCIPK14 was significantly down-regulated at 24 h, and FtCIPK10 was significantly up-regulated at 24 h. Under high calcium stress FtCIPK11 was significantly down-regulated at 8 h and 24 h,FtCIPK10 was significantly up-regulated at 8 h but down-regulated at 24 h, FtCIPK14 was significantly down-regulated at 8 h but up-regulated at 24 h,and FtCIPK5 was significantly down-regulated at 24 h. Under combined drought and high calcium stress,FtCIPK10 and FtCIPK11 were significantly down-regulated at 8 h and 24 h,FtCIPK12 was significantly up-regulated at 8 h and 24 h,and FtCIPK14 was significantly up-regulated at 24 h. 【Conclusion】 These results indicated that FtCIPK5 was induced by high calcium stress. FtCIPK10,FtCIPK11 and FtCIPK14 were induced by drought,high calcium and drought high calcium stress. FtCIPK12 was induced by combined drought and high calcium stress. Correlation analysis of gene expression implied that FtCIPK5,FtCIPK10,FtCIPK12,FtCIPK14 might interact with FTCBL3-1,and FtCIPK11 might interact with FtCBL1 and FtCBL9,FtCIPK10 and FtCIPK14 might interact with FtCBL2,which jointly regulated drought and high calcium stress response.
    Analysis of Differences in Fruit Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Nine Citrus Varieties
    HUANG Zehao, JIN Zhenghua, BI Xiaoyi, LI Yunjie, LI Jiahao, WU Tong, WU Qingxia, XI Lijuan, LIAO Ling
    2023, 41(3):  409-415.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209174
    Abstract ( 489 )   PDF (3378KB) ( 110 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to investigate and select the variety with the best quality and antioxidant capacity from 9 varieties of citrus. 【Method】 High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the compositions and contents of sugars and acids in the fruits. The fruit quality was comprehensively analyzed and compared by employing principal component analysis. The radical scavenging activities were determined by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP. Correlation analysis between fruit quality and antioxidant capacity was also performed. 【Result】 The results showed that total sugar content ranges from 53.98 to 152.88 mg/g,total acid content varies from 6.06 to 16.03 mg/g, and the acid ratio varies from 3.88 to 22.71,among which W. murcott is the highest. The principal component analysis of fruit quality showed that the comprehensive score of fruit quality varies from -3.25 to 4.93,among which Xiangfeicheng is the highest while Huangguogan is the lowest. And the ABTS of nine citrus varies from 0.18 to 0.79 mmol TE/g. The range of DPPH is 0.069 5~0.148 2 mmol TE/g,that of FRAP is 1.16~1.67 mmol TE/g,and that of comprehensive antioxidant index is 44.62~79.69. 【Conclusion】 Among the 9 citrus varieties,the comprehensive fruit quality of Xiangfeicheng is the best,while Valencia sweet orange has the strongest antioxidant capacity.
    Evaluation of Fruit Nutritional Components of Four High-Quality Jujube Cultivars in Xinjiang
    WU Hanbin, WANG Zhiyong, YUAN Jiaying, BAI Lu, SUN Peng, XU Feng, CHENG Shuiyuan, YUE Huafeng
    2023, 41(3):  416-424.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209156
    Abstract ( 673 )   PDF (6323KB) ( 77 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study evaluated the nutritional components of the fruits of four high-quality jujube varieties in Xinjiang,aiming to improve the unitariness of jujube in China and provide solutions to meet the needs of diversified industrial development to provide ideas. 【Method】 Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were mainly used to analyze the quality differences of different varieties of jujube. 【Result】 ① There were significant differences in composition content between varieties,with ′Nanjianghong′ having the highest sugar content and total flavonoids content,′Zhongzao 1′ having slightly lower sugar content than ′Nanjianghong′ but the highest nutrient content,′Huizao′ with the highest VC and mineral element content,and ′Junzao′ with the highest acid content and active ingredient content. ② The results of correlation analysis showed that there were strong correlations among different flavor or nutrient components. For example,soluble sugar was negatively correlated with anthocyanin and carotenoid,titratable acid was positively correlated with anthocyanin and carotenoid,and total phenol was positively correlated with fructose and glucose. ③ After systematic comparison,it was found that the sugar-acid ratio of ′Zhongzao 1′ and ′Huizao′ is higher than that of ′Nanjianghong′,and ′Nanjianghong′ is higher than that of ′Junzao′,so the first three varieties are more sweet;the starch and crude fat content of ′Zhongzao 1′ and ′Huizao′ is slightly higher than that of ′Junzao′,which is significantly higher than that of ′Nanjianghong′;the calcium and iron content of ′Zhongzao 1′ and ′Huizao′ is higher than that of ′Nanjianghong′,which is significantly higher than that of ′Junzao′;but the total flavonoids,anthocyanin and carotenoid content of ′Nanjianghong′ and ′Junzao′ are significantly higher than that of ′Zhongzao 1′ and ′Huizao′. 【Conclusion】 Comprehensive analysis shows that the active ingredient of ′Nanjianghong′ is better than that of ′Zhongzao 1′,but the nutritional composition of ′Zhongzao 1′ is higher than that of ‘Nanjianghong’,the mineral elements of ′Zhongzao 1′ and ′Huizao′ are higher, and they are suitable for consumption and enhancing human body functions;′Junzao′ is the most acidic,but the active ingredient content is the highest,and the antioxidant,beauty and health care functions are stronger as ′Nanjianghong′,and these research results provide reference basis and theoretical support for the distribution of Zizyphus jujube dates medicinal food resources.
    Effects of Different Storage Temperature on Metabolism Pathway of Terpenes and Terpineols in Tea Tree Oil
    LIU Yijun, ZHAO Yushi, YUAN Yuan, LIAO Xueru, LIN Lijing, LU Jianneng
    2023, 41(3):  425-429.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112067
    Abstract ( 49 )   PDF (1733KB) ( 129 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study was conducted to reveal the influence of storage temperature of tea tree oil on the metabolism of terpenes and terpineols during storage finally aiming at providing data support for improving the quality of tea tree oil. 【Method】 Tea tree oil was extracted from the branches and leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia by steam distillation,and terpenes and terpineols in tea tree oil were detected by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 【Result】 The relative contents of terpinene-4-ol,α-terpinene and γ-terpinene increased first and then decreased,while those of terpinene and α-terpineol decreased first and then increased,among which 35 ℃ had significant influence on the relative contents of terpene and terpineol compounds. Pearson correlation coefficient method was used to analyze the correlation of terpinene-4-ol,α-terpinene and γ-terpinene. The metabolic pathway of terpene and terpineol compounds of terpinene-4-ol during storage was revealed by combining the organic chemistry related principles such as compound conjugation effect,which provided theoretical support for guiding the production and storage of tea tree oil. 【Conclusion】 Different storage temperatures could affect the content of terpenes and terpineols in tea tree oil. Controlling the storage temperature playes an important role in improving the quality of tea tree oil.
    Forestry
    Evaluation of Introduction Experiment Based on Analysis of Inorganic Elements in Torreya Grandis Seeds in Introduction Area
    ZHANG Jiachun, ZHOU Qing, SUN Nan, LONG Chengchang, REN Shaohua, ZHOU Xinwei, ZHANG Chiqiang, WANG Chen
    2023, 41(3):  430-436.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202105153
    Abstract ( 62 )   PDF (1400KB) ( 43 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to provide theoretical support for the evaluation of the demonstration effect of Torreya grandis introduced into Guizhou. 【Method】 The soil and plants of Torreya grandis in Guizhou were used as study objectives,and the chemical properties of soil,heavy metals and trace elements in different parts of Torreya grandis plant were detected,and the inorganic element quality of heavy metals and trace elements in the experimental area of Torreya grandis introduced into Guizhou was evaluated,the influencing factors of heavy metals and trace elements in Torreya grandis seeds were discussed. 【Result】 The average values of soil pH,soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen, soil total potassium, soil total phosphorus, soil alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen, soil available phosphorus, and soil available potassium were 6.80,31.09 g/kg,1.70 g/kg,17.84 g/kg,0.91 g/kg,127.14 mg/kg,91.45 mg/kg and 475.50 mg/kg, respectively. These results suggested that the soil fertility was high. The contents of Hg,As,Cr,Cd and Pb in Torreya grandis seeds were the lowest,which met the standard of "green food-fried food". The contents of Ni,Cu,Zn,Se,Fe,Mn and Ca in Torreya grandis seeds were 1.608 mg/kg,10.644 mg/kg,27.124 mg/kg,0.053 mg/kg,46.19 mg/kg,12.58 mg/kg and 3 400 mg/kg, respectively,which were high in calcium,iron and selenium. There was a significant and positive correlation between soil available N and Cd in Torreya grandis seed,between Cd in seeds and leaves of Torreya grandis,and a significant positive correlation between Cd in Torreya grandis seed and in stem. 【Conclusion】 Based on the analysis of inorganic elements,this study finds that the seeds of Torreya grandis in Guizhou are green,safe,high in calcium,rich in iron and selenium.
    C∶N∶P Stoichiometry and Nutrient Resorption Characteristics among Four Afforestation Tree Species in the Middle Reaches of Fujiang River
    WANG Qiang, YANG Honglin, XU Chuhui, YANG Yulian, QU Qiaoxin, KANG Silan, LI Jiaxin, WU Qinggui
    2023, 41(3):  437-445.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202211191
    Abstract ( 60 )   PDF (7245KB) ( 42 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study is aimed to explore the ecological stoichiometry and nutrient reabsorption characteristics of the leaves-foliar litter-soil continuum among different afforestation species in the middle reaches of Fujiang River, and to provide theoretical support for the management of plantations in this region. 【Method】 This study measured the C, N, P contents in leaves, foliar litter and soil, and analyzed the ecological stoichiometry and nutrient reabsorption in Cupressus funebris, Pinus massoniana, Eucalyptus robusta, and Broussonetia papyrifera, which are among the main afforestation species in the middle reaches of the Fujiang River. 【Result】 ①The N contents of leaves and foliar litters in B. papyrifera were significantly higher than that of other species, and the P contents of leaves and foliar litters in E. robusta and B. papyrifera were significantly higher than that of C. funebris and P. massoniana. The soil P content in P. massoniana plantation was lower than the other species. ②The nutrient reabsorption efficiency of E. robusta and B. papyrifera was higher than that of C. funebris and P. massoniana. ③Soil N and P contents were positively correlated with the N and P contents in leaves and foliar litters. The N reabsorption efficiency (NRE) was positively correlated with N and P contents in leaves as well as P contents in foliar litters. The P reabsorption efficiency (PRE) was positively correlated with N content in leaves, foliar litter N∶P, soil C∶P and N∶P. 【Conclusion】 The results above indicated that there were significant correlations among leaves, foliar litters and soil in the middle reaches of Fujiang River. The N, P contents of leaves in E. robusta and B. papyrifera were relatively higher compared with those of C. funebris and P. massoniana, with stronger nutrient resorption ability, which illustrates a higher adaptability when subjected to soil nutrient limitations. Therefore, E. robusta and B. papyrifera could be properly supplemented in the management of the low-efficiency C. funebris and P. massoniana plantations, which would contribute to the improvement of planation quality in this area.
    Effects of Stand Density on Soil Physicochemical Properties of Phoebe zhennan Plantation
    CHENG Yilun, JIANG Tianyi, LI Sirui, PENG Jian, LI Jinwu, GU Yunjie, YANG Hanbo
    2023, 41(3):  446-455.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202208223
    Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (7359KB) ( 46 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In order to study the effects of different plantation densities on the soil quality of Phoebe zhennan plantation, this study analyzed the soil quality indicators of P. zhennan plantation under different long-term management of different stand densities, and provided reference for the selection of suitable stand densities in the cultivation of P. zhennan plantation. 【Method】 Using 6-years-old and 5 stand densities (D1: 400 plants/hm2, D2: 500 plants/hm2, D3: 600 plants/hm2, D4: 700 plants/hm2, D5: 850 plants/hm2) of P. zhennan plantation as the research object, the soil physical and chemical properties of different soil layers (0~10, 10~20, 20~30, and 30~50 cm) were measured. Significance tests were conducted using analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were conducted using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) method, principal component analysis was used to calculate the comprehensive index of soil quality for P. zhennan plantation at different densities, in order to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of soil quality. 【Result】 The soil of P. zhennan plantation showed weak acidity (pH=5.05-5.82). The stand density and soil depth had significant effects on soil organic carbon, nitrate nitrogen, and total phosphorus content (P˂0.05). In each stand density, the content of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and available phosphorus decreased with the increase of soil depth, indicating a significant 'surface aggregation' phenomenon in the distribution of soil nutrients in the P. zhennan plantation. In the same soil layer, the soil organic carbon, total phosphorus, and available phosphorus contents reached their maximum values in D1 density stands. The soil nitrate nitrogen content of D1 density stands was lower than that of D3 and D5 density stands. With the increase of stand density, the soil bulk density showed a trend of increasing at first and then decreased, while the soil moisture content showed an opposite trend. The comprehensive analysis results of soil quality based on principal component analysis showed that when the stand density of P. zhennan plantation was 400 plants/hm2, the soil quality comprehensive index was the highest, at 0.59, indicating that a lower plantation density was more conducive to improving soil quality. 【Conclusion】 Stand density has a significant impact on soil nutrient quality, and a lower stand density (400 plants/hm2) is more conducive to maintaining soil nutrients and improving soil quality in P. zhennan plantation.
    Effects of Seasonal Changes on Soil Enzyme Activities and Their Stoichiometric Characteristics of Subalpine Forests in Western Sichuan
    LIU Yao, LIU Jinchao, SONG Yulong, ZHANG Linhui, CHEN Su, XU Zhenfeng, TAN Bo, ZHANG Li
    2023, 41(3):  456-463.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202210221
    Abstract ( 73 )   PDF (5118KB) ( 68 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study purposes to study the response of soil enzyme activity and its stoichiometric ratio to different seasons in subalpine forest of western Sichuan, and to provide basic data for forest material cycling process in this region. 【Method】 In-situ culture experiments were conducted to study the effects of seasonal changes on soil enzyme activities and stoichiometric ratios related to carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) cycling in subalpine forest soils of western Sichuan, China, with three different types of soils: coniferous, mixed broad-leaved and coniferous, and broad-leaved forests. 【Result】 The effects of sampling period and forest type and their interactions on phosphatase (AP), β-1,4-glucosidase (BG) and β-N-acetyl glucosidase (NAG) activities were significant. At the beginning of the growing season, BG activity of broad-leaved forest was significantly higher than that of coniferous forest and mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. AP and NAG activity of coniferous forest were significantly higher than those of broad-leaved forest and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. The activities of BG, cellobiohydrolase (CBH), NAG, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and AP increased with increasing temperature, the enzymatic activity of the three forest types is generally higher at the beginning of the growing season than during the freezing period. The soil enzyme stoichiometric carbon-nitrogen ratio (EC/N) was lower than the global average, while the carbon-phosphorus ratio (EC/P) and nitrogen-phosphorus ratio (EN/P) were higher than the global average, which indicated that the enzymatic activity of N-invertase was higher in this region and was in a relatively N-limited region. Redundancy analysis showed that environmental factors explained 81.09% of the variation in soil enzyme activity and stoichiometric ratios, with SWC, N/P and Tm being the main influencing factors. 【Conclusion】 Soil enzyme activity and its stoichiometric ratios are influenced by a combination of forest type and seasonal variation, and are regulated to varying degrees by soil C, N, P, and soil hydrothermal conditions.
    Ecology·Environment
    Effect of Water Extract of Fatsia japonica Combined with GLDA on Phytoextraction of Cd Contaminated Soil by Lantana camara L.
    YUAN Ting, JIA Yongxia, XIE Yihui, YANG Yuanyuan, XU Xiaoxun, ZHANG Shirong, LI Ting, PU Yulin, LI Yun
    2023, 41(3):  464-470.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202208206
    Abstract ( 49 )   PDF (1554KB) ( 59 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study is conducted to explore the effect and mechanism of Lantana camara L. in remediation of cadmium(Cd) contaminated soil enhanced by the composite activator of Fatsia japonica water extract (FJ) and L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA). 【Method】 Pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of FJ and GLDA on the biomass, Cd accumulation characteristics of L. camara, and Cd availability in rhizosphere soil. 【Result】 GLDA had no effect on the growth of L. camara, while FJ and FJ+GLDA could promote the shoot growth of L. camara, and the shoot dry weight increased by 29.26% and 19.47% compared with control. The Cd concentration in the roots and stems of L. camara was less affected by FJ, but increased by 52.39%, 60.66%, and 34.95%, 40.36%, respectively, after applied with GLDA and FJ+GLDA. The three activators significantly increased the Cd accumulation in the shoot of L. camara, which were 53.11%, 53.53% and 88.79% higher than control, respectively, and FJ+GLDA treatment had the best effect. The soil DOC content was significantly increased under the three activator treatments, which were 1.22, 1.34 and 1.28 times of control, respectively. At the same time, the three activators promoted the conversion of reducible and oxidized Cd to acid-extracted Cd and increased the content of DTPA-Cd in soil. The DTPA-Cd increased by 24.26% under FJ+GLDA treatment, which was superior to other treatments. 【Conclusion】 It is feasible to use compound activators to strengthen the effect of L. camara on phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. The compound activator promoted the growth of L. camara, and enhanced the availability Cd in soil by increasing the content of soil DOC, thus it promoted the absorption and accumulation of Cd by L. camara, and significantly improved the efficiency of L. camara in phytoextraction Cd contaminated soil.
    Mechanism of Moss Biomonitoring Method for Heavy Metal Pb Deposition and Sampling Strategy Optimization
    RAN Jiangyou, YE Li, HUANG Shuai, CHEN Yuanyuan, WANG Yanmin, ZHOU Wei, ZHANG Shirong, XU Xiaoxun, DENG Ouping
    2023, 41(3):  471-480.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207220
    Abstract ( 55 )   PDF (4064KB) ( 101 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to explore the response mechanism of moss to atmospheric Pb deposition and optimize the moss sampling strategy for indicating atmospheric pollution. 【Method】 The atmospheric heavy metal Pb deposition and moss Pb concentration were continuously monitored at a typical urban-rural transition in Chengdu Plain from September 2018 to August 2019. The spatio-temporal characteristics and response relationship of them were analyzed, and the optimal sampling season and frequency were discussed. 【Result】 The results showed that the annual average atmospheric heavy metal Pb deposition fluxes and moss Pb concentrations were (1.29±0.04) mg/(m2·a) and (18.50±0.65) mg/(kg·a), respectively. The Pb depositions generally agreed with the spatial and temporal variation of moss Pb contents. In terms of time, the Pb depositions were highest in summer and lowest in spring. However, the maximum value of Pb deposition was one order of magnitude larger than its minimum value (11.30~21.01 times), while the maximum value of moss Pb contents was 2.80~3.44 times larger than its minimum value. In terms of space, moss Pb contents and Pb deposition both showed highest values in village, and the lowest values in forest. The correlation between moss Pb contents and the cumulative flux of Pb depositions at different cumulative lengths (1-12 months) was significant in this study (P<0.05). In the short time cumulative scale (1-3 months), only the correlation between forest-agricultural areas and forest monitoring sites was significant (P<0.05). Further analyzing the two monitoring sites above, we found that the correlations in summer (August), autumn (September and October), and February in winter were significant (P<0.05). When the accumulation time exceeded 3 months, the correlation between all monitoring sites was not significant (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 Moss can monitor atmospheric Pb deposition. However, it is more suitable for less human-disturbed regions, such as forests. The optimal sampling season is summer and autumn, which corresponds to the growing season of moss. If moss monitoring is required in the areas with higher Pb deposition intensity, it is necessary to screen moss varieties with stronger tolerance and enrichment ability.
    Comparative Study on Wastewater Pretreatment Methods for Anammox Treatment of Digested Swine Wastewater
    HUANG Yan, ZHOU Man, DENG Liangwei, WANG Lan
    2023, 41(3):  481-487.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202208179
    Abstract ( 52 )   PDF (1500KB) ( 141 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper purposes to investigate the effect of different precipitation methods on the removal of suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), determine the appropriate pretreatment method of digested swine wastewater, and remove the obstacles of TSS to anaerobic ammonia oxidation technology to treat digested swine wastewater. 【Method】 By comparing the pretreatment methods such as aeration precipitation, sludge enhanced aeration precipitation and coagulation flocculation precipitation, this study found the most suitable pretreatment method for digested swine wastewater. 【Result】 The results showed that, aeration for 30 min and precipitation for 1 h were the best conditions. Compared with the blank group, the COD removal rate can be increased by 9.24%. Sludge-enhanced aeration sedimentation is not suitable for pretreatment of digested swine wastewater due to low water recovery rate. As far as chemical precipitation, 100 mg/L polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS)+ 8 mg/L polyacrylamide (PAM) is the best concentration combination, which can increase the TSS removal rate by 52.08%. 【Conclusion】 In this study, an economical and efficient pretreatment method for digested swine wastewater was obtained through comparative screening, the combination of 100 mg/L PFS+8 mg/L PAM and precipitation for 1 h are the most suitable pretreatment methods for digested swine wastewater. This study can provide technical support for the engineering application of anammox for the treatment of digested swine wastewater.
    Study on Metabolite Response of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A3 under K+ and Mg2+ Induction
    AO Jing, LI Yang, GAO Xiaomei, LIU Xiaohui, SUN Yulu
    2023, 41(3):  488-494.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202210222
    Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (1949KB) ( 72 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study purposes to study the effects of K+ and Mg2+ induction on the metabolism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A3. 【Method】 Taking A3 fermentation broth as the research object, this study employed non-targeted metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis to screen the differential metabolites in the fermentation broth. Pathway enrichment analysis of metabolites was performed by KEGG database. 【Result】 The results showed that the addition of K+ and Mg2+ had significant effects on metabolites in the fermentation broth. The main differential metabolites included peptides, organic acids and other small molecular compounds. Compared with the blank fermentation broth, 120 differential metabolites were detected in the K+ treatment group, among which 80 metabolites were up-regulated. Such as spermine, adenine, L-histidine and so on. In Mg2+ treatment group, 162 differential metabolites were detected, among which 51 metabolites were up-regulated, such as uracil and nicotinamide, and 111 metabolites were down-regulated, mainly including amino acid compounds such as L-glutamate and L-aspartic acid. A total of 115 regulated metabolic pathways were enriched in KEGG database, mainly including metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. Among them, 54 pathways were significantly enriched in K+ treatment group, such as the biosynthesis of pantothenate and coenzyme A, and the biosynthesis of cofactors; Mg2+ treatment group 29, such as aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. 【Conclusion】 The addition of K+ increased the cellular metabolic level of A3. Both K+ and Mg2+ can indirectly lead to the increase of NAD/NADP in cells, and may also change the energy metabolism of A3 cells. The addition of Mg2+ interfered with protein synthesis and degradation in A3 cells.
    Animal Science
    Study on the Movement of Field-Introduced Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) during Estrus
    WU Daifu, LIN-SHAO Wenlan, HE Shengshan, LI Desheng, LIU Xiaoqiang, ZHANG Guiquan, CHEN Jiadong, FENG Gaozhi, TANG Hua, MU Shijie, YAN Xiao, HUANG Yan, ZHAO Ke, DUAN Zhaogang, ZOU Likou
    2023, 41(3):  495-508.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209162
    Abstract ( 430 )   PDF (48915KB) ( 83 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Understanding the space utilization and activity regularity of animals during estrus is an important basis for carrying out animal field-introduction projects. 【Method】 In order to clarify the differences in these patterns between successful field-introduced giant pandas and failed field-introduced giant pandas during estrus in the field environment, and to find the reasons why field-rescued pandas can mate successfully while captive pandas failed, this paper investigated the movement date of two field-rescued individuals who have been kept in captivity for a long time and three captive individuals who haven't learnt any wild training with GPS collars in the Wolong National Nature Reserve. The GPS data were calculated in ArcGIS. 【Result】 The results showed that the minimum convex polygon home range of field-introduced pandas is from 7.19 km2 to 75.21 km2, and the MCP home range of unsuccessful field-introduced pandas was significantly larger than successful pandas. Meanwhile, the average daily movement distance of unsuccessful individuals was also larger than successful individuals [(493.11±57.45) m<(789.57±284.88) m]; the MCP home range before estrus, during estrus and after estrus were (1.94±1.11) km2, (8.68±6.95) km2 and (1.19±1.34) km2.The MCP home range during estrus was significantly larger than that before and after estrus. Moreover, in different period, the giant pandas also have distinct different preferences for geographical factors. Meanwhile, the distance between scent trees and activity fixes during estrus of successful and failed field-introduced giant pandas is also has significant differences. The successful field-introduced giant pandas are inclined to be around the scent trees during estrus. 【Conclusion】 There are differences in the space utilization and activity patterns between successful and failed field-introduced giant pandas during different period. Compared with the successfully field-introduced pandas, the failed pandas had larger home range and average daily movement distance in the wild, and the activity fixes of successful pandas were more inclined to scent trees during estrus. It is suggested that in the future work, we should consider the wild training of giant pandas before the field introduction, focusing on the training of wild survival skills, improving the ability of communication and reproduction, so as to lay the foundation for the successful field-introduction of captive giant pandas in the wild.
    Adaptive Characteristics of Tibetan Pig's Cardiomyocytes to Hypoxic Environment
    YANG Qitian, WU Shengrui, YANG Chunxu, YANG Yanan, CAI Yuan
    2023, 41(3):  509-514.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202210190
    Abstract ( 297 )   PDF (50684KB) ( 67 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper purposes to investigate the adaptability of Tibetan pig's cardiomyocytes to hypoxic environment. 【Method】 Cardiomyocytes of Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs were cultured in hypoxic (2% O2) and normoxic (21% O2) environments for different times to observe and analyze the cellular morphology and the trend of proliferation rate which were isolated and identified. 【Result】 Though optimizing cardiomyocyte culture methods, it was found that when select CMM medium and trypsin enzyme digest for 20 min, the cells had better adherent growth, uniform arrangement and fewer suspended cells. The cardiomyocytes showed fibrosis and aggregation, and the changes were more obvious when cultured in hypoxia environment for 72 h. In addition, cardiomyocytes of Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs were cultured with hypoxic concentration until the sixth hour, the proliferation rate of cardiomyocytes of Tibetan pigs was higher than that of Landrace pigs (42%), which may help Tibetan pigs adapt better to the hypoxic environment. 【Conclusion】 The ability of Tibetan pig's cardiomyocytes to adapt to the low oxygen environment is significantly higher than that of Changbai pigs, and the damage of cardiomyocytes of Tibetan pigs was significantly minor compared to that of Changbai pigs. This study can provide reference for understanding the responding mechanism of Tibetan pig's cardiomyocytes in response to hypoxia, and provide theoretical support for the introduction of other plain pig breeds to hypoxia areas in the plateau.
    Target Roles and Key Molecular Pathways of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Meat Quality Regulation
    XIANG Guilin, YAN Honglin, CHEN Hong, XIAO Yi
    2023, 41(3):  515-524.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202304218
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (10163KB) ( 64 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This review was compiled to summarize the effect of muscle fiber components on meat quality and its molecular regulatory mechanism, and to provide theoretical reference for further integrating the concepts of nutrition and muscle physiology. 【Method】 The general fiber composition, metabolic characteristics and its contribution to meat quality, as well as the key signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle were reviewed in this paper by tracking the frontier research trends. 【Result】 Meat quality largely depends on the physiological and biochemical changes that occur during muscle development, while fiber type composition and metabolites determine the overall biochemical and functional properties of muscle tissue, which in turn determine meat product quality. Muscle development and metabolism are genetically programmed but can also change in response to physiological needs. Thus, the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism is largely the result of environmentally regulated gene expression and muscle protease activity, involving a series of sophisticated and complex regulatory pathways at the cellular and molecular levels. 【Conclusion】 With the in-depth research of metabolomics technology and metabolic molecular pathways, the key influencing factors and mechanisms in the formation of meat quality are further revealed, which provides important theoretical guidance for solving the contradiction between meat yield and meat quality. The intervention of meat quality through precision nutrition may have broad application prospects.
    Effect of Dietary Polysaccharides from Prymnesium parvum on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Serum Index and Intestinal Microflora of Juvenile Hybrid Sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt ♀ × A. schrenckii Brandt ♂)
    XING Wei, XU Guanling, LI Tieliang, MA Zhihong, JIANG Na, YU Huanhuan, LUO Lin
    2023, 41(3):  525-536.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207227
    Abstract ( 338 )   PDF (2830KB) ( 153 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was conducted to determine the effects of polysaccharides from Prymnesium parvum on growth performance, body composition, serum index and intestinal microflora of hybrid sturgeon. 【Method】 A total of 270 juvenile hybrid sturgeons were randomly assigned to 3 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate. Fish in the 3 groups were fed the basal diets supplemented with 0%(JZ-0, control group), 0.3% (JZ-1) and 0.6% (JZ-2) polysaccharides from P. parvum. The experiment lasted for 84 days. 【Result】 The results showed that the feed conversion rate (FCR) in JZ-1 and JZ-2 group was significantly lower than that in JZ-0 group (P<0.05); the condition factor (CF) and feed efficiency (FE) in JZ-2 group were significantly higher than those in JZ-0 group (P<0.05); no significant differences were found in the survival rate (SR), specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain rate (WGR), viscerasomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) among groups(P>0.05). The whole body and liver lipid content in JZ-1 and JZ-2 fish groups were lower than that in JZ-0 group. Compared with the JZ-0 group, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and lysozyme in JZ-1 and JZ-2 groups were significantly increased; the activities of alanine aminotransferase and glutathione peroxidase in JZ-2 group were significantly increased. The MiseqPE300 sequence assays showed that the Chao l index, Observed species index, PD whole tree index and Shannon index of intestinal bacteria in experimental groups were higher than those in JZ-0 group; NMDS analysis showed that, there were difference in diversity of intestinal microbiota in JZ-1, JZ-2 and JZ-0 groups; The proportion of Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were decreased, whereas the proportions of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were increased in experimental groups; Clostridum_sensu_stricto_1 and Candidatus_Arthromitus were increased in experimental groups. 【Conclusion】 Combined with this study and from the perspective of economic benefits, 0.3% of polysaccharides from Prymnesium parvum was better added to the feed.
    In vitro Antibacterial Effect and Mechanism of Rosa roxburghii Tratt Pomace Extract on Aeromonas hydrophila
    ZENG Chengrong, LIU Xin, ZHANG Chenxu, BI Wenwen, MEI Shihui, HE Guangxia, ZHANG Junjie, WEN Ming, ZHOU Bijun, CHEN Jiangfeng, JIANG Haibo
    2023, 41(3):  537-545.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209166
    Abstract ( 62 )   PDF (4325KB) ( 56 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper aims to explore the bacteriostatic effect and mechanism of Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract on Aeromonas hydrophila, the main pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture. 【Method】 The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract against Aeromonas hydrophila were determined by microdilution method and plate counting method, the effect of Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract on Aeromonas hydrophila colony movement was detected by colony movement experiment, and the effect of Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract on Aeromonas hydrophila lipase and protease activity was detected by lipase and protease activity experiment. The effect of Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract on the hemolysis of Aeromonas hydrophila was determined by hemolysis experiment, the formation of biofilm was detected by crystal violet method, and the virulence and gene expression of regulatory system were detected by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. 【Result】 The MIC of Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract to three Aeromonas hydrophila strains was 128 mg/mL. The MBC of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC7966 was 256 mg/mL, and the MBC of the other two Aeromonas hydrophila strains were all >512 mg/mL. When the concentration of Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract was lower than 8 mg/mL, it did not affect the growth of the strain. When Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract ≥4 mg/mL, it had obvious inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, protease activity and hemolytic activity, and showed a dose-dependent inhibition, but had little effect on lipase activity. The quantitative RT-PCR results showed that Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract could significantly down-regulate the expression of luxS and ahyr genes in Aeromonas hydrophila quorum sensing (QS) system. At the same time, the expression of aerolysin aerA decreased significantly. 【Conclusion】 Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract can inhibit the growth and exercise ability, enzyme activity, hemolytic activity, biofilm formation and the expression of related virulence genes of Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that Rosa roxburghii Tratt pomace extract is a potential substitute for Aeromonas hydrophila.
    Study on Antifungal Activity of Different Polar Parts of Pterocephalus hookeri (C. B. Clarke) Höeck
    LAN Kun, SHEN Chenyu, LI Yilin, LI Chunhua, CHEN Li, LIANG Xiaoxia
    2023, 41(3):  546-549.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202210192
    Abstract ( 51 )   PDF (1400KB) ( 58 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In this study, the antifungal activity of different polar extracts of Pterocephalus hookeri (C. B. Clarke) Höeck against zoonosis bacteria of animal origin Microsporum gypsum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis was investigated. 【Method】 The dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were obtained from the gradient extraction of the 70% ethanol extraction of Pterocephalus hookeri (C. B. Clarke) Höeck. The antifungal ratio in vitro was determined by mycelial growth rate method. The MIC was determined by double dilution method. The MBC was detection by plate culture method. 【Result】 The dichloromethane extraction, the ethyl acetate extraction and the n-butanol extraction exhibited different inhibitory effects against the three strains of fungi, in which the lower polarity extraction showed stronger inhibitory activity. 【Conclusion】 Different polar parts from Pterocephalus hookeri (C. B. Clarke) Höeck exhibited antifungal effects, which can be used in the development of natural antimicrobial agents.
    Agricultural Economy
    Regional Imbalance and Identification of Driving Factors in the Coupling Degree of Rural Revitalization and High-Quality Development
    ZHOU Liping, ZUO Yuanyuan
    2023, 41(3):  550-565.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202302217
    Abstract ( 678 )   PDF (3820KB) ( 188 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The regional heterogeneous characteristics and influencing factors of the coupling and coordination level of rural revitalization and high-quality development in China are studied, and scientific basis is provided for accelerating the high-quality development of agriculture and rural areas. 【Method】 Based on the entropy weight TOPSIS, grey correlation degree and coupling degree model to calculate the coupling degree of rural revitalization and high-quality development in 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China from 2010 to 2019, the standard deviation ellipse, spatial autocorrelation, σ convergence method and Dagum Gini coefficient methods were used to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamic evolution characteristics of the regional heterogeneity of the coupling degree, and it also used the spatial Dubin and OLS models to further identify the driving factors of the coupling degree in China and four major regions. 【Result】 ① The coupling degree of the whole country and the four major regions showed an increasing trend year by year, and there were spatial distribution characteristics of "high in the east and low in the west", and the coordination type jumped from primary coordination to intermediate coordination. The elliptical center of gravity of the coupling degree is always located in Henan Province, indicating that its location distribution characteristics and dynamic evolution trajectory are relatively stable. There is a significant spatial positive correlation in coupling, but the correlation degree is weak. Except for the small diffusion trend in the coupling degree in the western region, the rest of the regions showed a convergence trend. The spatial difference mainly comes from between regions, followed by regions, and the supervariable density is the smallest. ② From a national perspective, population density, economic development, consumption level and financial development will have a significant positive effect on the coupling development level, while human capital factors have a negative inhibitory effect, and the population density, economic development, financial development and technological development of neighboring areas will also have spatial spillover effects, and the improvement of the coupling degree of surrounding areas will also have a positive radiation effect on the region. From a regional perspective, the drivers exhibit "region-specific" characteristics. 【Conclusion】 Adhering to the principle of "national overall planning and adapting measures to local conditions",this study found sthat it is necessary to strengthen the leading role of the government's macroeconomic regulation and control, and also give play to the role of the driving factors of each region, and also optimize the spatial layout structure of the coupling degree, enhance the linkage between regions, promote coordinated regional development, and then accelerate the modernization of Chinese-style agriculture and rural areas.
    Connotation, Characteristics, Promotion Logic, Practical Difficulties and Realization Path of Farmers' Common Prosperity
    WANG Ruifeng, PANG Jinchao
    2023, 41(3):  566-572.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202302215
    Abstract ( 687 )   PDF (1361KB) ( 128 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Common prosperity is the essential feature of socialism and the essential requirement of Chinese path to modernization, and farmers are the key group in the process of common prosperity. 【Method】 On the basis of a full review of existing literature, this paper systematically analyzes and explains the promotion mechanism of farmers' common prosperity from three aspects: how to make it possible, how to make it difficult, and how to realize it. 【Result】 To promote the common prosperity of farmers, it is necessary to address "economic poverty" as the premise,"dist+ribution according to work" as the basis, and "give priority to the development of agriculture and rural areas and comprehensively implement rural revitalization" as the path to achieve comprehensive and free development of farmers. 【Conclusion】 The content of farmers' common prosperity can only be effectively implemented in the coordinated process of urban-rural integration development, high-quality development of the new rural collective economy, digital economic development opportunities, and comprehensive promotion of rural revitalization by focusing more on the "essence of income".