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28 February 2023, Volume 41 Issue 1
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  • Crop Science
    Cloning and Sugar Transport Functional Analysis of GMPP in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici
    LIU Xiufeng, XU Jingyang, YANG Zhaoshun, LOU Chenjun, XU Gaoping, SHAO Fengwu
    2023, 41(1):  1-5.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202110010
    Abstract ( 732 )   PDF (5413KB) ( 282 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was aimed to investigate the sugar transport function of mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase (GMPP) in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. triticiPst). 【Method】 Primers were designed to screen and amplify the GMPP gene(named PsMT1) based on the comparison of Pst transcriptome data with 17 Pst genomes sets in NCBI database, and the GMPP gene of Pst was cloned, named PsMT1. PsMT1 was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain EBY.VW4000 and grew on media with hexose or sucrose as the sole carbon source. 【Result】 The cDNA of PsMT1 was 1 245 bp in length, encoding 414 amino acids, and the isoelectric point was 6.05. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PsMT1 had the closest genetic relationship with GMPP of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Heterologous expression of PsMT1 can restore the growth of the hexose transporter deficient mutant yeast EBY.VW4000 on medium with D-mannose as the sole carbon source. 【Conclusion】 PsMT1 was cloned and its heterologous expression product could transport mannose. The results obtained in this study can provide basis for the further study of interaction between Pst and wheat mediated by sugar transporter.
    Study on Dehydration Characteristics and Grain Filling of Summer Maize in Sichuan Province
    LIU Qianqian, CHEN Xiang, LIU Jiayuan, WANG Yanli, KONG Fanlei
    2023, 41(1):  6-8.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205129
    Abstract ( 560 )   PDF (1811KB) ( 172 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To provide the scientific basis for mechanized grain harvesting of summer maize in Sichuan,the current study was conducted to investigate the characteristics and relationship of grain filling and dewatering were studied in this paper. 【Methods】 In 2019 and 2020, the characteristic parameters of grouting and dehydration of six maize varieties were determined respectively. 【Result】 The results showed that the accumulated temperature required for grain filling was 1 119.1-1 754.9 ℃,with an average of 1 544.8 ℃. The accumulated temperature required to reduce the water content to 28% was 1 359.9-2 133.1 ℃,with an average of 1 612.6 ℃. 【Conclusion】 The grain filling rate and dehydration rate of maize showed no difference among years,but significant difference among varieties. Correlation analysis showed that grain filling rate showed significantly negative correlation with dehydration rate and water content at the physiological maturity stage. Selecting varieties with faster grain filling and dehydration was the key to reduce grain water content at the physiological maturity stage of Sichuan summer maize.
    The Effect of Urease Inhibitor Application on Ammonia Volatilization and Crop Yield of Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System in Purple Soil
    ZHANG Qi, WANG Hong, LUO Fuxiang, YAO Li, ZHENG Shenghua, ZHOU Changxiu, LIN Chaowen
    2023, 41(1):  14-20.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202110085
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (3991KB) ( 145 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Ammonia volatilization is decreased with urease inhibitor NBPT application,whereas the effect of urease inhibitor NBPT on ammonia volatilization in rice-rapeseed rotation system is not well understood. Therefore, the current study was conducted to identifying the factors of rice-rapeseed ammonia volatilization loss and yield in rice-rapeseed rotation system of purple soil which can provide prevention and cure skills for non-point source pollution in Sichuan province. 【Method】 Field experiments were implemented with different rates of urease inhibitor NBPT application in purple soil using rice and rapeseed as materials. The treatments included T0 (no fertilizer), T1 (urea),T2 (urea with 0.1% NBPT of total nitrogen application),T3 (urea with 0.2% NBPT of total nitrogen application) and T4 (urea with 0.5% NBPT of total nitrogen application). 【Result】 Results signified that T1、T2、T3、T4 treatments emitted cumulative ammonia of 26.54%,18.28%,14.88% and 12.78%,respectively in rice-growth season and 5.22%,1.57%,1.36% and 1.31%,respectively in rapeseed-growth season. Compared to T1 treatment,the T2,T3 and T4 treatments significantly decreased the cumulative ammonia emissions by 31.14%,43.96%,51.82%,respectively in rice-growth season and 70%,74.04% and 74.89%,respectively in rapeseed-growth season. There was no significant difference among T2,T3 and T4 in rice or rapeseed-growth season. The mean ration of NH4+/NO3- in bulk deposition was 1.86,while the NH4+ deposition was accounted for 63.94% of the total inorganic N deposition. In addition,compared to T1 treatment,T2,T3 and T4 treatments significantly increased crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency. However,increasing urease inhibitor NBPT rate had little effect on crop yield and nitrogen efficiency. 【Conclusion】 Compared with the application of urea only, the utilization of urease inhibitor NBPT can significantly reduce ammonia volatilization loss, improve crop yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency. Inorganic N deposition was significantly correlated with fertilizer application. Ammonium nitrogen is the main form of nitrogen deposition in farmland.
    Effects of Exogenous Sucrose on Photosynthetic Characteristics,Substance Accumulation and Yield Formation of Soybean Leaves under Different Shade Treatments
    WU Qian, LUO Xiao, CHEN Zhao, YANG Xiaolei, LUO Kai, YONG Taiwen
    2023, 41(1):  21-27.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202211154
    Abstract ( 997 )   PDF (8153KB) ( 155 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To investigate the effects of exogenous sucrose on photosynthetic characteristics,substance accumulation and yield formation of soybean leaves under different shade treatments. 【Method】 The experimental design of two-factor split-plot was adopted,using shade-tolerant soybean 'Nandou 25' as the material,the main factors were the shading period: the third section to the first flowering stage shading treatment (VS),the initial flowering to the mature stage shading treatment (RS),the non-shade treatment (NS),the secondary factors were exogenous sucrose concentration:0% (CK),1.0% (S1) and 1.5% (S2),from 3 nodes (V3) to 5 nodes (V5),sucrose was sprayed on both sides of soybean leaves every day. 【Result】 S2 significantly increased the chlorophyll content of upper and middle leaves of VS by 10.41% and 7.80%,and significantly increased the dry matter of upper and middle NS layers by 40.00% and 33.52%,respectively. S2 treatment can increase the photosynthetic rate of upper leaves in the early shade treatment,which is 13.30% higher than CK. S2 increased the yield of VS,RS and NS by 5.98%,44.82% and 13.10% respectively compared with CK. S1 increased the photosynthetic rate of the middle and lower leaves in the early shade treatment,which increased by 17.34% and 9.29%,respectively,compared with CK. 【Conclusion】 Exogenous sucrose can increase the chlorophyll content of soybean leaves,increase the leaf area,increase its photosynthetic rate,alleviate the weak light stress caused by shading,and improve the photosynthetic characteristics,so as to increase the yield,and the treatment with S2 concentration is the best.
    Forestry·Horticulture
    Biological Characteristics and Screening of Fungicide for Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae Associated with Phoebe spp. Canker
    CHEN Quanzhu, ZHENG Wanzheng, TANG Wenbin, TANG Xinghao, GONG Hui, FENG Lizhen
    2023, 41(1):  28-34.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209171
    Abstract ( 185 )   PDF (1592KB) ( 149 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this research was to clarify the biological characteristics and screen effective fungicides for guiding disease control practice scientifically. 【Method】 Biological characteristics of strain L. pseudotheobromae SCMN-BB-8 were taken and the effects of fungicides were measured indoor and outdoor in this study. 【Result】 The optimal conditions for mycelium growth were potato sugar agar with pH 7.0 cultivated at 30 ℃, the suitable carbon source was sucrose or glucose, the suitable nitrogen source was sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate, and illuminance had no significant effect on hyphae growth. Conidium germination had a positive correlation with relative humidity, and conidium under the circumstance with high humidity and temperature at 30 ℃contributed to germination. Fungicides such as cloxynil, flusilazole and thiophanate-methyl that chosen had obvious inhibitory effects on the pathogen indoor and outdoor. 【Conclusion】 In this research, the biological characteristics of the pathogen SCMN-BB-8 strain was clarified, and fungicides with better control efficiency were selected, which laid a foundation for the monitoring, prediction and prevention of this disease.
    Effects of Endophytic Fungi on Nutrient of Aleurites montana under Aluminum Stress
    SHEN Wen, AI Rubo, LIN Han, XIE Anqiang
    2023, 41(1):  35-41.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202210173
    Abstract ( 118 )   PDF (1524KB) ( 111 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was conducted to screen out the strains that can improve the nutrient utilization efficiency of Aleurites montana seedlings under aluminum stress environment. 【Method】 In this study, five kinds of endophytic fungus [J10467, J10468, J10466, and J10469 (Penicillium.sp), and J10328 (Alternaria.sp)] extracted from A. montana was selected as the study object.Through potted inoculation experiments, this study measured and analyzed the changes of nutrients elements such as C, N, P and aluminum elements in the aboveground and underground parts of the A. montana seedlings under different aluminum stress. 【Result】 ① Under mild and moderate stress, inoculating with J10467, the nitrogen content in the underground part of the A. montana increased by 29.2% and 60.7%, respectively, compared with control. Compared with CK, the content of carbon in aboveground A. montana was increased by 56.3% inoculated with J10469 under severe stress; the inoculation of J10328 and J10469 had a promoting effect on the increase of phosphorus content in aboveground A. montana ;② Under mild stress, inoculating with J10466 can reduce the aluminum content in the aboveground part of the seedlings; under the moderate stress, inoculating with J10466 and J10469can reduce the aluminum content in the underground part of the seedlings. 【Conclusion】 In summary, J10469 (Penicillium.sp) can be used as a specific microbial fertilizer for aluminum resistance.
    Effects of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Ratios on Ecological Stoichiometry of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus at the End of Shoot Growth in Phyllostachys violascens Stand
    YE Lühan, CHEN Luman, LYU Qian, LI Xiangjun, HU Wenting, ZHANG Yan, Li Xianwei
    2023, 41(1):  42-53.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202208148
    Abstract ( 164 )   PDF (5370KB) ( 135 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study aimed to explore the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer at different ratios on the ecological stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and shoot yield at the end of shoot use of Phyllostachys violascens. The ecostoichiometric ratio suitable for the growth and production of P. violascens was obtained, which provided a theoretical basis for improving the economic benefit of bamboo shoot forest. 【Method】 Taking 1-5 years old bamboo shoot forest in Zhongli town of Yucheng district as the research object, the changes and stoichiometric characteristics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients of P. violascens under different nitrogen-phosphorus ratios (NP3=3∶1, NP9=9∶1, NP15=15∶1 and NP21=21∶1) were studied. The vegetative growth characteristics of P. violascens under different nitrogen-phosphorus ratios was revealed through the relationship among shoot yield, nutrients of different organs and soil factors. 【Result】 The main results were as follows: ① Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization could significantly affect the contents of C, N, P and corresponding stoichiometric ratio of different P. violascens organs. With the increase of the ratio of nitrogen/phosphorus, the content of total C, C:N, and C:P in all organs increased at first and then decreased, while the content of total C and total P decreased at first and then increased, and N:P decreased gradually.② Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization had little effect on the relationship between C, N, P content and stoichiometric characteristics among organs.③Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization significantly increased the fresh shoot yield of P. violascens , and the shoot yield increased at first and then kept stable with the increase of the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus. There was a significant correlation between bamboo shoot yield and soil pH, total N and available nitrogen (AN) content.④There was a significant correlation between soil pH and CIRP in all organs of P. violascens , and there was a significant correlation between soil AN content and nutrient content and stoichiometry in all organs of P. violascens. 【Conclusion】 The forest land of P. violascens is mainly restricted by N, which can be alleviated by different N/P ratio fertilization treatments to a certain extent. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization significantly increased the fresh shoot yield of P. violascens. Considering both economic benefit and green sustainable development, NP15 is a suitable ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization.The eco-stoichiometric ratio of each organ can guide the selection of fertilization ratio in the production of shoot forest under the NP15 treatment, where the total C content in branches and total N content in fine roots is characteristic of the vegetative growth of P. violascens to some extent.
    Construction and Phenotypic Analysis of Deletion Mutant of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Transporter Subunit Tom7 in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans
    WANG Xinlei, WANG Bixiang, LI Erfeng
    2023, 41(1):  54-60.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204092
    Abstract ( 120 )   PDF (12315KB) ( 73 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study aimed to study the functions of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein transporter subunit Tom7 in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. 【Method】 Knockout mutants were obtained using methods of homologous recombination and protoplast-mediated transformation. Then the phenotypes and pathogenicity were analyzed between wild type and mutants. 【Result】 The deletion mutants showed slower growth rate,wavy curved mycelia,increased sporulation,and more sensitive to oxygen stress and osmotic stress,but had no effect on virulence. 【Conclusion】 It was speculated that Tom7 played roles in mitochondrial protein transport. Knockout of Tom7 further affected the growth,development and sporulation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans.
    Ecology·Environment
    Genetic Analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda Reared on Different Hosts
    JIA Wenzhen, LUO Lian, MA Chunhu, JIANG Xiuping, BA Hongguo, LIANG Yueyang, LI Ping, LI Shuangcheng, WANG Shiquan
    2023, 41(1):  61-67.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204116
    Abstract ( 94 )   PDF (11993KB) ( 84 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aimed to identify the subtypes of Spodoptera frugiperda invasive in Sichuan province,feed them with different hosts,and explore their genetic characteristics preliminarily. 【Method】 In this study,two molecular markers,cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI) and triose-phosphate isomerase (Tpi) located on the Z chromosome,were used to analyze the subtypes of Spodoptera frugiperda in Sichuan province. 【Result】 The identification results based on COI gene showed that 50 samples collected from Sichuan were all ′corn strain′. Subsequently,Spodoptera frugiperda fed by artificial diet,maize and rice seedlings until the third generation. It was found that the Spodoptera frugiperda fed on artificial diet and maize seedlings were all ′corn strain′,and the samples from rice seedlings were partially differentiated into ′rice strain′. But analysis based on the Tpi gene showed that all the samples were ′corn strain′. 【Conclusion】 The results indicated that the Spodoptera frugiperda invading Sichuan province was not a single subtype,and there were some ′heterozygous′. The main host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda,such as corn and rice,were widely planted in Sichuan province. Clarifying the genetic characteristics of Spodoptera frugiperda can provide a scientific basis for the agricultural sector to develop targeted prevention and control measures.
    Variation Analysis of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) by SSR Molecular Markers
    ZHU Jie, JI Yang, LUO Dan, DAN Xuming, DING Qiong, ZHANG Ailing, ZHOU Puding, WANG Xiaoshan, HUANG Linkai
    2023, 41(1):  68-74.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202206134
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (2029KB) ( 107 )   Save
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    【Objective】 At the molecular level, to confirm whether there were genetic variations in seven individual elephant grass materials which could overwinter naturally in Dongniu pasture of Xuyong County, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province and has significant differences in sugar content. 【Method】 Determination of sugar content in 8 test materials and primer screening and PCR amplification by using SSR molecular markers. 【Result】 166 clear and effective bands were amplified by 22 pairs of primers, including 114 polymorphic bands, and the polymorphic band ratio was 68.67%. The clustering results showed that the genetic similarity coefficients among the 8 test materials were between 0.560 and 0.795. The genetic similarity coefficient of SA-4 and Guimu-1 was the smallest and the genetic relationship was far. 【Conclusion】 According to the specific bands amplified by different primers, it was speculated that SA-4 with the highest sugar content was the bud mutation material of Guimu-1. The results will provide a molecular biological basis for the selection of new materials for elephant grass bud mutation.
    Influence of Simulated Drought Stress on Seedling Growth and Bacterial Community in the Rhizosphere of Sainfoin
    XIA Jing, WEN Sujun, NAN Lili, WANG Kun, CHEN Jie
    2023, 41(1):  75-82.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202110111
    Abstract ( 112 )   PDF (2966KB) ( 144 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The effects of drought stress on root growth and rhizosphere soil bacterial community of Onobrychis viciaefolia were investigated to provide a theoretical basis for improving drought tolerance and water use efficiency in sainfoin. 【Method】 The nutrient solution sand culture method was adopted, different sainfoin lines including three new lines of P1, P2, P3, Onobrychis viciaefolia ′Gansu′ and O. viciaefolia ′Mengnong′ were used. Drought stress was simulated with PEG-6000 with a water potential of -0.8 MPa of different stress time (0,3,6,and 9 days). The total DNA of the seedling rhizosphere soil was extracted and amplicon sequencing of V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the bacterial community structure of drought-treated sainfoin. 【Result】 With the prolonging of stress,the plant height and average root diameter of Onobrychis viciaefolia were increased, while the leaf area was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Aboveground dry weight, root tip number, total root length, total root surface area,and root volume were significantly increased (P<0.05), whereas underground dry weight, root shoot ratio, and root activity firstly increased and then decreased significantly (P<0.05), and reached the maximum at 3 days of drought stress. The mean values of root tip number, root diameter, aboveground and underground dry weights of new sainfoin line of P1 were significantly higher than those of other lines (P<0.05) during the whole period of stress. The indices of Chao1, ACE, Simpson, and Shannon were first decreased and then increased (P<0.05), and reached the maximum at 0 d. Chao1 and ACE indices were the lowest under drought stress of 6 days,whereas the diversity indices of Simpson and Shannon were the lowest under drought stress of 3 days. Proteobacteria,Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were dominant bacterial phyla. The drought stress time significantly increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria ,decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, and firstly decreased and then increased the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes significantly (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 The new sainfoin line of P1 has better drought resistance. Modifying the microbial community structure and improving the soil microdomain environment can improve the drought stress tolerance of plants.
    Effects of Sowing Ratios of Legumes-Grasses Mixture on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
    LIU Siyu, LI Xiangjun, ZHAO Yanlan, GONG Jinchao, SU Yingying, LI Xuxu, MA Congyu, ZHOU Jiqiong
    2023, 41(1):  83-91.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205128
    Abstract ( 114 )   PDF (1449KB) ( 116 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To investigate the effects of different legumes-grasses sowing ratios on the AMF communities and soil nutrients. 【Method】 In this experiment,Trifolium repens,Trifolium pratense and Dactylis glomerata were used to establish legumes-grasses mixture with three different legumes-grasses sowing ratios of 5∶5,4∶6,3∶7,to explore differences of soil nutrients and the diversity of AMF under different sowing ratios. 【Result】 It was found that the pH and organic matter content of soil that under the 3∶7 ratio were significantly lower than the 5∶5 ratio;the AMF root colonization density、hyphae length density and root vesicle richness that under the 3∶7 ratio were significantly higher than the 5∶5 ratio;from the 5∶5 ratio to the 3∶7 ratio,the AMF community diversity gradually decreased. 【Conclusion】 The change of the legumes-grass sowing ratio can make an effect on the diversity of AMF communities and the soil nutrients. The changes in AMF community diversity were significantly affected by pH and organic matter of soil.
    A Study on the Ecological Characteristics of Landscape Revetment Based on the Perspective of Soil Macrofauna Diversity
    LIU Yushi, JIANG Minjie, TANG Kaiyang, LUO Chunlan, ZENG Qian, XU Weichao, XIAO Jiujin, HUANG Yumei
    2023, 41(1):  92-100.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209172
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (7575KB) ( 68 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was designed to reveal the connection between the characteristics of soil macrofauna communities and the ecological factors of different landscape revetment types,and provide theoretical references for the construction of urban landscape revetment and the restoration and protection of ecological environment in the future. 【Method】 The characteristics of soil macrofauna communities of different landscape revetment types in three rivers, Jiang'an, Yangliu and Jinma Rivers, Wenjiang District, Chengdu were studied by employing the method of field investigation and data analysis. 【Result】 A total of 1 252 soil macrofauna were captured in this experiment, belonging to 27 orders and 117 families. The analysis results showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) among three different revetment types, both the group number and the individual density showed mixed-type revetment> natural revetment> hard-type revetment. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among different seasons of soil macrofauna;the group density and the individual number of soil macrofauna in autumn were significantly higher than in other seasons (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between other seasons (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 The diversity of soil macrofauna communities on different landscape revetment is significantly different. Therefore,when constructing the landscape revetment, it is better to pay attention to the selection of revetment materials, properly retain the original vegetation, give full play to the ecological and ornamental functions of the landscape revetment.
    Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Soil Macrofauna Community of Seabuckthorn Forests in the Nianchu River Basin, Tibet
    WANG Zhuangzhuang, ZHU Shiying, HE Kai, PU Bu
    2023, 41(1):  101-110.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203147
    Abstract ( 122 )   PDF (5247KB) ( 162 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study aims to understand the characteristics of soil macrofauna community and its relationship with environmental factors in seabuckthorn forests of the Nianchu River Basin. 【Method】 25 sampling and 5 plots sites were set up according to the geographical distribution of seabuckthorn forest in May, August and October of 2020. The soil macrofauna were investigated on the surface of 75 soil samples and in the soil samples by hand picking method, and the corresponding environmental factors were measured at the same time. 【Result】 After three sampling, a total of 798 soil macrofauna were captured, which belonging to 39 groups, 28 families, 17 orders, 5 classes, 3 phyla. The dominant groups were Formicidae, Lycosidae and Lithobiidae, accounting for 62.67% of the total catch. There were 10 common groups, accounting for 28.32%, and 26 rare groups, accounting for 8.77%. The results of One-way ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in the number individuals and groups of soil macrofauna, Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou evenness index (E) among the three seasons (P>0.05). Jaccard similarity results showed that the distribution of soil macrofauna in the five plots had some differences and principal coordinate analysis (PCOA) showed that the similarity degree of soil fauna was different among seasons. The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that altitude, soil water content, soil temperature, pH, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were significantly correlated with the community characteristics of soil macrofauna (P>0.05). Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that axis 1 and axis 2 were the most likely to reflect the gradient of influencing factors on the composition of soil macrofauna communities, and available phosphorus (AP) was the significant explanatory variable. 【Conclusion】 This study showed that there were no significant differences in the biological indexes of soil macrofauna among the three seasons (P>0.05),and the spatial and temporal distribution of community characteristics were different. Altitude, soil water content, soil temperature, pH, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were the important factors affecting soil macrofauna in the seabuckthorn forest.
    Effects of Different Biochars Application on Mineralization Characteristics of Organic Carbon in Acidic Purple Soil
    TANG Aohan, XIAO Yi, XIAN Xin, JIN Ruimin, LONG Sifan, CHEN Yulan, LI Bing, WANG Changquan
    2023, 41(1):  111-118.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202202042
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (4262KB) ( 135 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study aimed to explore the effects of biochar materials prepared from different biomass sources on the mineralization of organic carbon in acidic purple soil,and to provide a scientific basis for the rational utilization of biochar. 【Method】 The biochars were prepared by corn stalks, eggshells and adenophorum, and the biochar physicochemical properties were analyzed. The effects of different sources of biochars on the organic carbon mineralization, mineralization rate, excitation effect and CO2 release in acid purple soil were studied by indoor constant temperature cultivation experiments. 【Result】 The specific surface area and porosity in adenophorum biochar and corn stalk biochar were larger than those in eggshell biochar. The carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) contents of eggshell biochar were the lowest. The C/H content of eggshell biochar was the highest, reaching for 79.33%. The stable carbon content accounted for 86.03% in eggshell biochar. All biochar applications increased the total soil organic carbon content, and the increasing curve showed a downward trend within the cultivation time extension. The application of biochar promoted soil respiration and produced a positive excitation effect. The increasing curve of the organic carbon mineralization was declined during the cultivation time and dropped to about 25 mg/kg, eventually. The decrease in soil organic carbon mineralization rate was particularly obvious in the eggshell biochar treatment. 【Conclusion】 After the application of corn stalks biochar and adenophorum biochar, the increase of soil′s total organic carbon increase was much greater than that of eggshell biochar treatment, and the carbon sequestration effect was stronger. The soil organic carbon mineralization rate was highest after the eggshell biochar application, and the soil carbon stabilization pool was weak. Compared with the straw biochar (corn stalk biochar and echinacea biochar), the eggshell biochar application was not suitable for carbon sequestration and emission reduction.
    Effects of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Combined with Coconut Shell Biochar of Different Dosage on Cadmium Contaminated in Soil
    WU Yuerong, HE Huan, JIN Yuanxiao, SUN Xiaoshuang, YANG Tao, YU Jiang
    2023, 41(1):  119-124.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202202132
    Abstract ( 120 )   PDF (4374KB) ( 139 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was conducted to explore the remediation effect of CSBC-PGPR-ryegrass joint remediation system on Cd-contaminated loam soil. 【Method】 Coconut shell biochar (CSBC) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) -Burkholderia sp. YXL1 were selected to prepare four different biochar materials. Pot experiment was conducted to explore remediation effect with CSBC-PGPR-ryegrass joint remediation system through determining ryegrass biomass,Cd concentration extracted from soil,Cd distribution in the soil,soil physicochemical properties,soil enzyme activity,bacterial abundance and diversity. 【Result】 Compared with the CK control group,the biomass,bioavailable Cd and enriched Cd of ryegrass increased by 74.20%, 15.25% and 434.90% respectively after CSBCB (CSBC+YXL1) application. Soil physical and chemical properties were improved effectively and pH, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were increased by 0.50,0.48 g/kg and 7.61 mg/kg,respectively. Compared with the blank treatment, the activities of soil dehydrogenase,soil urease,soil acid phosphatase and sucrase were significantly increased by 62.55%,70.05%,27.49% and 73.57%,respectively. 【Conclusion】 The joint remediation of Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria combined with coconut shell biochar material to enhance ryegrass has a good application prospect for Cd enrichment ability.
    Animal Science
    Preliminary Study on the Effect of Fermented Goat Milk on the Skin of D-Galactose-Induced Aging Model Mice
    GU Baoxiang, ZHU Hui, WANG Ning, WEI Mengting, TIAN Bo
    2023, 41(1):  125-130.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205112
    Abstract ( 559 )   PDF (7283KB) ( 109 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study aims to determine the in vitro total antioxidant capacity of yeast-fermented goat milk and its effect on the skin of aging mice. 【Method】 Forty healthy female mice were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups, blank control group, aging model group, pre-fermentation control group, and fermentation experimental group. Except for the blank control group, D-galactose was injected subcutaneously on the nape of the neck every day for 42 consecutive days to establish the aging model. During the modeling process, sterile water was applied to the back skin of the mice in the blank control group and the aging model group, the pre-fermentation control group was applied with unfermented goat milk, and the fermentation experimental group was applied with fermented goat milk. After 42 days, the water content, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability in skin tissue were measured. 【Result】 Compared with the blank control group, the skin moisture content, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and SOD enzyme activity of the mice in the aging model group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the MDA content was significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the aging model group, the water content, hydroxyl radical scavenging rate and SOD enzyme activity in the skin of the mice in the fermentation experimental group were significantly increased (P<0.05), and the MDA content was significantly decreased (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 The experiment showed that fermented goat milk has a certain effect on delaying skin aging.
    Comparative Analysis of the Growth and Development of Fast and Slow Feather Lines of Kirin Chicken with Frizzled Feather
    WANG Fujian, JIAO Zhenhai, LI Guo, BIN Chengfeng, NAWAZ Ali Hassan, ZHANG Weilu, LIN Shudai, ZHANG Li
    2023, 41(1):  131-138.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205137
    Abstract ( 746 )   PDF (4150KB) ( 128 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was conducted to uncover the development of Kirin chicken with slow or fast feather, to evaluate if Kirin chicken could be used in breeding sex-identification set line and excavate and utilize the local genetic resources. 【Method】 Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models were used to analyze the growth patterns of fast and slow feathered line of the Kirin chicken from the age of 1 to 19 weeks and explore the suitable growth model. 【Result】 For the males, the body weight was significantly different between fast and slow feathered chicken at the 1st week (0.01<P<0.05), but there were no significant differences at the remaining weeks. While for the females, the body weight of the slow-feathered chicken was significantly higher than that of the fast-feathered ones at the 3rd week (P<0.01), but the results were opposite at the 7th week (P<0.01). At the remaining time point, there were no significant differences. The keel bone length tended to be consistent in different strains including roosters and hens, but the shank length and circumference showed different at various periods. The fitness of the 3 models for body weight was very high (R2≥0.985), among which the best one was Bernalanffy model. The fitness (R2) of the fast-feathered rooster and hen was 0.999 and 0.993, respectively, while the fitness (R2) was 0.994 for the slow feathered rooster and hens. The best fitted model for keel bone length and shank circumference was the Bertalanffy for the two types of feathered Kirin chicken. While Logistic was the best model for the shank length of the fast-feathered chicken and Gompertz was the optimal model for the shank length of the slow-feathered chicken. 【Conclusion】 There were differences existed between the two lines of Kirin chicken during their growth and development. The Bertalanffy model was the best for body weight, keel bone length and shank circumference, respectively, while Logistic and Gompertz were optimal for the shank length of the fast and slow feathered Kirin chicken. In production practice, the optimal feeding conditions should be provided at different stages to meet the nutritional requirements of chickens during their growth and development.
    Effect of Blood Cell Membrane Associated Protein on the Toxicity of Pedunsaponin A to Pomacea canaliculata
    HAN Zhengwei, ZHANG Yangyang, CHEN Huabao, WANG Bin, MA Yuqing, YANG Chunping
    2023, 41(1):  139-145.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202206106
    Abstract ( 535 )   PDF (7068KB) ( 80 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Based on previous proteomics results, proteins PcMCM3, PcRPS27A and PcMCM5, which related to structure and function of hemocyte membrane, were screened from the down-regulated proteins. After that, the gene interference system was constructed, and then the effects of the 3 proteins in toxicity of PA (pedunsaponin A) to P. canaliculata were tested. 【Method】 Analyzing the results of phylogenetic tree and spatiotemporal expression, screening the optimal siRNA for interference, and detecting the mortality of P. canaliculata after interference. 【Result】 Results of phylogenetic tree showed that PcMCM3, PcRPS27A and PcMCM5 had higher genetic relationships with (Aplysia californica, XP_005107582.1), (Octopus bimaculoides, XP_014787008.1), (Biomphalaria glabrata, XP_013089107.1) and other species. Results of Spatio-temporal expression showed that the mRNA expression levels of the 3 proteins significantly decreased after PA treated, which were consistent with the results of previous proteomics studies. After siRNA screening, siRNAs with interference efficiency greater than 90% were obtained and further used for verification tests. By comparing the interference target protein gene treated with PA with those P. canaliculata without interference, it was found that the mortality of P. canaliculata had no difference between the treated and untreated groups. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that this candidate protein didn't affect the toxic effect of PA on P. canaliculata.
    Digital Agriculture
    WheatRS: A Comprehensive Analysis Software for Comparison Test Data of Wheat Lines
    WU Fangkun, WANG Zhiqiang, SHI Haoran, HOU Shuai, ZHOU Wanlin, ZHOU Hong, LI Caixia, LIU Changchuang, LIU Gang, NIU Xingkui, LIU Yaxi
    2023, 41(1):  146-152.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202206109
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (5839KB) ( 110 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study was conducted to develop a comprehensive analysis software based on the comparison test of wheat variety,which can realize the screening of test data,visual analysis,yield prediction and variety evaluation.【Method】 The comprehensive analysis software was developed by adopting R language,R packages,and Shiny architecture. 【Result】 The software version v. 1.0 included breeding data screening module,variety information visualization module,variety yield and breeding potential analysis module,and published online. 【Conclusion】 The software can realize visual analysis and prediction analysis of wheat variety comparison test data,and had good interaction,which is beneficial to wheat breeders' variety selection.
    Research on Improving RetinaNet's Crop Pest Detection Model
    XING Weiyin, LI Jiao, ZHONG Lehai, HAN ZhengYong
    2023, 41(1):  153-157.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202212169
    Abstract ( 551 )   PDF (13760KB) ( 106 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To quickly and accurately detect crop pests and diseases in dense shading environments to meet the needs of large-scale and high-efficiency identification. The study proposes an improved RetinaNet crop pest detection model. 【Method】 Combines with DenseNet, the RetinaNet feature extraction network was modified to enhance feature reuse, improve the recognition rate of the deep network model for crop pests, and identify the species of pests and diseases accurately and quickly. Its non-great suppression algorithm adopts the DIoU strategy, which effectively reduces the leakage rate of crop pests in the case of dense targets and improves the detection accuracy. 【Result】 The experimental results show that the improved algorithm model has high detection accuracy and good real-time performance, and has good adaptability to the dense crop shading situation, and the mmAP reaches 49.8%. 【Conclusion】 Applying the model to the complex crop growth environment can effectively improve the intelligent detection of pests and diseases.
    Meta-Analysis on Impact of Conservation Tillage on Winter Wheat Yield and Yield Composition in the North China Plain
    GENG Jing, HE Tingfeng, LI Haikang
    2023, 41(1):  158-165.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209138
    Abstract ( 337 )   PDF (2463KB) ( 177 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In order to quantitatively analyze the effects of conservation tillage on winter wheat yield and yield composition in the North China Plain, this study was conducted to seek the suitable high-yield tillage methods for winter wheat. 【Method】 In this study, we collected 513 groups of experimental data from 40 published papers in Chinese and foreign literature databases, and the meta-analysis method was used to quantitatively describe the response of conservation tillage for winter wheat yield and yield composition. 【Result】 Compared with the traditional tillage method, no-tillage showed a significant reduction effect for winter wheat yield by 5.11%, which was mainly reflected in the number of spikes with a significant decrease of 7.67%.Subsoiling showed a significant increase effect for winter wheat yield, and the yield increased by 11.72%, which was mainly reflected in the significant increases for the number of spikes, the grains per spike and 1 000-grains weight.Under subsoiling tillage, there was a significant yield increase response in the central and southern regions of the North China Plain, and the winter wheat yield was less affected by the average annual temperature, annual rainfall and nitrogen application. 【Conclusion】 Subsoiling is beneficial to improve winter wheat yields in the biannual winter wheat-summer maize planting area of the North China Plain, which is mainly reflected in the significant increase of yield composition. Deep tillage is used as a priority in the central and southern regions of the North China Plain.
    Agricultural Economy
    Spatial Correlation Characteristics of China's Agricultural Carbon Emissions and the Choice of Emission Reduction Policies
    GAN Tianqi, LIU Mingming, ZHOU Zongyu
    2023, 41(1):  166-174.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209167
    Abstract ( 336 )   PDF (1395KB) ( 120 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was conducted to investigate the spatial correlation characteristics of China's agricultural carbon emissions, so as to provide policy choices for China to achieve low-carbon agricultural development and promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions【Method】 The spatial correlation of China's provincial agricultural carbon emissions was tested by building five kinds of weight matrices, such as economy and distance. Based on the stochastic environmental impact assessment modelassessment model a spatial dynamic panel model was established to examine the influencing factors of agricultural carbon emissions.【Result】 The population density and energy intensity have obvious increasing effects, the income level and industrial structure have prominent reducing effects, and agricultural carbon emissions have significant path dependence and spatial lag characteristics.【Conclusion】 Achieving low-carbon agricultural development is a systematic project, which requires overall layout and continuous promotion.
    Analysis on Temporal and Spatial Differentiation Characteristics and Development Stages of Watershed Scale Farmland Consolidation in Sichuan Province
    ZHANG Heyu, YANG Qinglin, XIAN Weixuan, YU Chen
    2023, 41(1):  175-184.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202201141
    Abstract ( 415 )   PDF (20449KB) ( 128 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Under the background of coordinating regional development and realizing rural revitalization, the study of the spatial-temporal variation characteristics provides new research models for land spatial decision in Sichuan province. 【Method】 Based on the data of farmland consolidation projects in Sichuan province from 2016 to 2020, this paper studies the spatial-temporal variation characteristics and development trend of its quantity and scale of projects by using exploratory spatial pattern analysis method, gravity center model and standard elliptic difference analysis method. 【Result】 ①In terms of the spatial pattern of the projects quantity and scale, the watershed farmland consolidation projects is mainly based on regulation projects, showing a distribution pattern of more in the East and less in the West. Among them, the regulation projects are clustered in 5 watersheds such as the middle and lower reaches of Tuojiang River in northeast Sichuan and Chengdu plain economic zone in block forms. The development projects are mainly focused in southern SiChuan and panxi economic zone in the soil and water conservation and biodiversity conservation and restoration area of Jinsha River dry hot valley and the soil and water conservation and biodiversity conservation and restoration area of Jinping Mountain Yalong River downstream in southern Sichuan and northeast Sichuan economic zones by strip and group-like forms. The reclamation projects are mainly scattered in Chengdu plain and northwest Sichuan ecological demonstration economic zone in Qionglai Mountain Daxiangling water conservation and biodiversity conservation and restoration area. ②In terms of the annual project of the moving track and moving trend, the scale of annual regulation projects shows a moving track of “Southwest-Northeast”. The annual moving track of the reclamation project shows a moving trend of “Northwest-Northeast-Southwest”. The annual moving track of the development project generally shows a moving trend towards “northeast”. ③According to the above spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics, it is generally divided into two stages. elopment problems in each stage, corresponding suggestions are put forward from the aspects of matching, development weakness and development mode. Above study coordinates the spatial layout and spatial decision-making of land consolidation projects problems required in the Sichuan basin under the “mountain-basin” terrain. 【Conclusion】 Based on the above analysis, land consolidation in Sichuan Province should focus on optimizing the proportion of population, economy, resources and environment in local areas, invigorating idle land, supplementing the development weaknesses of major facilities and human settlements, improving the allocation capacity of spatial elements, especially land elements, and optimizing the spatial development mode, so as to improve the spatial organization efficiency of urbanization in the basin.