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28 December 2022, Volume 40 Issue 6
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  • Literature Review
    Role of Cytoplasmic 3-Phosphate Glyceraldehyde Dehydrogenase in Oxidative Stress Mediated by ABA and H2O2
    LUO Ya, YANG Min, GE Cong
    2022, 40(6):  805-811.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205101
    Abstract ( 269 )   PDF (4771KB) ( 235 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To investigate the role of cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) in abscisic (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidative in plants. 【Method】 The results of the present studies were used to summarize theABA and H2O2 signal transduction process and the multifunctionality of GAPC. 【Result】 ABA is an important hormone in response to abiotic stress and stomatal closure in plants,and H2O2 is a key signaling molecule for ABA-mediated stress responses. Due to GAPC in cysteine residues possesses sulfhydryl molecules that are susceptible to be oxidation,GAPC has signal transduction function besides catalytic function. Under oxidative stress,GAPC participates in the process of plant H2O2-dependent signal transduction,and plays multifunctional roles as a modified proteins. 【Conclusion】 GAPC responds to oxidative stress by moonlighting or the regulation of primary metabolism transformation.
    Horticulture
    Genetic Predisposition Analysis of Main Fruit Traits and Screening of Dominant Parents in F1 Generation of 10 Peach Cross Combinations
    SONG Haiyan, LIU Junhong, JIANG Guoliang, TU Meiyan, SUN Shuxia, LI Jing, WANG Lingli, XU Zihong, Yin Denggui, CHEN Dong, GONG Ronggao
    2022, 40(6):  812-819.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204110
    Abstract ( 235 )   PDF (1431KB) ( 142 )   Save
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    【Objective】 It′s aimed to investigate the genetic predisposition and correlation of main fruit traits in F1 generation of peach cross combinations, and to provide theoretical basis for screening core parents and dominant cross combination in peach breeding. 【Method】 In this study,the genetic predisposition and correlation analysis of flesh color, fruit growth period,single fruit weight and internal quality indexes of F1 generations of 10 peach crosses and their parents were carried out. 【Result】 By chi-square test of pulp color character separation and phenotypic analysis of parents, it was confirmed that the genotypes of WP-1, ′Xiacui′′Hongburuan′ and ′Yanzhichao′ controlling pulp color character were heterozygous (Yy). Through the genetic predisposition analysis and correlation analysis of the main traits of F1 generation fruit, we screened out one dominant combination and one dominant father,which were beneficial to obtain short growth period of hybrid offspring,two dominant combinations and one dominant male parent, which were beneficial to increase the fruit weight of hybrid progenies,two dominant combinations and two dominant fathers,which were beneficial to improve the soluble solid content of hybrid progenies, one dominant combination and one dominant parent,which were beneficial to obtain low acid hybrid offspring. In addition,we also obtained one dominant combination and two dominant fathers,which were favorable for obtaining hybrid progenies with high vitamin C content. 【Conclusion】 Fruit growth period and soluble solids content of F1 generation of peach hybrid could be used as the core indicators to select superior individual plants of peach hybrid offspring. By analyzing the genetic tendency of fruit traits,the key parents and dominant cross combinations in peach breeding could be selected quickly.
    Comparison and Application of Extraction Methods of Polymethoxy Flavonoids from Five Late-Maturing Citrus Pericarp
    JIN Zhenghua, HUANG Zehao, BI Xiaoyi, LI Yunjie, WANG Xun, DENG Honghong, GU Xianjie, LIAO Ling
    2022, 40(6):  820-825.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209121
    Abstract ( 190 )   PDF (1456KB) ( 98 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this study is to establish a rapid and efficient method for extracting polymethoxy flavonoids (PMFs) from late-maturing citrus peels. By comparing the content of PMFs in the pericarp of five kinds of late-maturing citrus,the optimal treatment combination of PMFs extraction from late-maturing ripening citrus was selected finally. This provides a reference basis for the separation and detection of PMFs in citrus and the late-maturing citrus varieties with high PMFs content. 【Method】 This study was made by using 'Huangguogan' as the research material,and a three-factor and three-level orthogonal test were carried out by using three methods including ultrasonic extraction, oscillation extraction and microwave extraction, and setting three factors of extractant,time and ratio of material to respectively. Three groups of optimal combinations were selected form 27 combinations finally,and the PMFs contents of five kinds of late-maturing citrus were analyzed. 【Result】 The highest extraction amount in the peel of 'Huangguogan' was U2 in ultrasonic extraction,O3 in oscillatory extraction and M2 in microwave extraction. Considering the time,extraction efficiency and other factors,the optimal treatment combination for PMFs extraction of 'Huangguogang' is M2. In addition,in the same treatment method,the highest extraction amount of PMFs is 'Orah mandarin', followed by 'Huangguogan'. There is little difference in extraction quantity between 'Harumi' and 'Daya orange', and the extraction amount of PMFs from 'Tarocco' is the smallest.
    Effect of Different Improvement Treatments on the Soil Physicochemical Property Changes of Kiwifruit Orchard
    YOU Haoyu, CHEN Dagang, XU Kaiwei, PENG Dandan, XIAO Sujie, LUO Zhongwei, WANG Zuhua, CHEN Yuanxue
    2022, 40(6):  826-837.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209133
    Abstract ( 177 )   PDF (4517KB) ( 196 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Aiming at the production problems of heavy soil viscosity, poor water retention,poor aeration and permeability,and poor plant growth in kiwifruit orchard, the changes of physical and chemical properties of clayey soil in orchard under different improvement measures were investigated, and the optimal soil improvement scheme was screened. 【Method】 Using 1 m³ open-pit pool planting simulation test,design totally 7 treatments including control (CK),20% sand mixed (S20),40% sand mixed (S40),3 kg/pool branches returned to the field (B3),10 kg/pool wormcast returned to the field (W10),3 kg branches and 10 kg/pool wormcast returned to the field (B3+W10) and 20 kg/pool wormcast returned to the field (W20),and determine the related physical and chemical indexes of soil. The changes of soil physical and chemical properties were synthetically evaluated by PCA(principal component analysis). 【Result】 W20,W10,B3+W10,B3 and S20 treatments could effectively reduce soil surface compactness and soil bulk density,there are significant difference between W20, W10, B3+W10 and CK (P<0.05). W20,W10 and B3+W10 treatments could increase field water capacity,saturated water content and capillary porosity of soil,enhance soil moisture holding capacity,and significantly increase (P<0.05) total nitrogen,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and organic matter contents of soil. B3,S20 and S40 treatments decreased field water capacity,saturated water content and overall porosity, and S40 with the weakest water holding capacity will be easily leak and arid, but there is no significant difference between B3 and CK (P>0.05). The results of PCA showed that the combined effect due to the changes of soil physical and chemical properties in kiwifruit orchard under different soil improvement treatments were as follows:W20(3.346)>B3+W10(1.655)>W10(1.529)>B3(-0.705)>S20(-0.712)>CK(-2.489)>S40(-2.624). 【Conclusion】 Sand mixed (S20) can reduce soil bulk density,degree of packing and water holding capacity,increase the non-capillary porosity, and improve air and water permeability in soil. However,sand mixed (S20,S40) will lead to the decrease of water retaining capacity and soil fertility,so it is suggested to strengthen the corresponding water and fertilizer management. The application of wormcast in soil (W10,B3+W10,W20) can significantly reduce soil bulk density and compactness,promote total nitrogen,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium,significantly increase organic matter content,and so improve soil fertility. While the improvement of soil bulk density,water capacity and porosity by branches returned (B3) was relatively weak. Combined with the results of principal component analysis (PCA),it was known that to improve the physical and chemical properties of the viscosus and sticky soil in kiwifruit orchard the relatively scientific and reasonable measures was mixing 20% sand and synergistical applying 20 kg/0.6 m3 wormcast organic fertilizer (the mixing depth is 60 cm).
    Effects of Rape Straw Mulching on Soil Physicochemical Properties in Sichuan Peach Orchards and Fruit Quality of Peach
    LI Rui, SUN Jing, BAO Rongfen, LI Zhiyu, TU Meiyan, CHENG Dong, WANG Ting, LIU Lei, LIN Lijin
    2022, 40(6):  838-846.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202201149
    Abstract ( 158 )   PDF (2198KB) ( 122 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of different mulching amounts of rape straw on soil physicochemical properties in Sichuan peach orchards and fruit quality of peach,and screen out the best mulching amount of rape straw that could improve soil physicochemical properties in Sichuan peach orchards and fruit quality of peach. 【Method】 Five mulching amounts of rape straw (0,1.5,3,4.5 and 6 kg/plant) added organic material decomposing agent were mulched on the soil surface in Sichuan peach orchards,and the effect of rape straw on soil physicochemical properties in Sichuan peach orchards and fruit quality of peach were studied. 【Result】 The soil pH value and organic matter content in the soil layers of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm were significantly increased when the rape straw was mulched on the soil surface. The contents of total nitrogen,total phosphorus and total potassium in different soil layers increased after mulching rape straw,and reached the highest when the mulching amount was 6 kg/plant. The contents of alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium in different soil layers were significantly higher when the rape straw mulching amounts were 3,4.5 and 6 kg/plant,and reached the highest when the mulching amount was 6 kg/plant. When the rape straw mulching amount was 6 kg/plant,the appearance quality of peach fruit such as single fruit weight,fruit vertical and horizontal diameters,and fruit shape index reached the best,and the inner quality of the fruit was optimal. The contents of different sugar components in peach fruit increased when different amounts of rape straw were mulched on soil surface. When the rape straw mulching amount was 6 kg/plant,the contents of total soluble sugar,sucrose,fructose and glucose in peach fruit were significantly higher than those in the control,which were increased by 23.60%,29.41%,31.46% and 131.11%,respectively. When the rape straw mulching amount was 4.5 and 6 kg/plant,the antioxidant enzyme activities of peach fruit were significantly improved. 【Conclusion】 Mulching with rape straw can improve soil physicochemical properties in Sichuan peach orchards and improve fruit quality of peach,with 6 kg/plant being the best.
    Effect of Chili Straw Biochar on Chemical Characteristics of Yellow Soil and Growth of Chinese Cabbage
    LUO Yang, ZHANG Guiling, WANG Fang, XIANG Yangzhou, REN Jun
    2022, 40(6):  847-852.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204152
    Abstract ( 172 )   PDF (7760KB) ( 99 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to clarify the improvement effect of pepper straw biochar on yellow soil. 【Method】 With Chinese cabbage and yellow soil as research objects, this study adopted pot experiment to explore the effects of adding different proportions of biochar from chili straw on the chemical characteristics of yellow soil and the growth of Chinese cabbage by measuring soil pH value, organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content, aboveground biomass, Vc content and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. 【Result】 Compared with the control, the soil pH value of the treatments with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5% chili straw biochar increased by 0.17, 0.77 and 0.62 units respectively, the organic matter content increased by 8.43%, 183.52% and 378.35% respectively, and the available phosphorus and potassium content also increased. The fresh weight of Chinese cabbage increased by 127.20%, 290.38% and 286.82%, respectively. In addition, the content of phosphorus and potassium in the shoot of Chinese cabbage increased by 51.02%-216.33% and 13.36%-38.58%, the soluble sugar content increased by 2.72-3.69 percentage points, Vc content in the shoot of Chinese cabbage increased by 58.60%-131.72%, while nitrate content decreased by 7.36%-18.02% compared with the control, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The addition of chili straw biochar improved the chemical characteristics of yellow soil, promoted the absorption of nutrients by Chinese cabbage, and improved the biomass and quality of Chinese cabbage. The best effect was achieved with the addition ratio of 2.5% in the range of this experiment.
    Effects of Brassinolide on the Growth and Nutrient Absorption of Cyphomandra betacea Seedlings
    CUI Tonghao, ZHOU Huixuan, BAO Rongfen, XIAO Yunying, XU Xiangting, DONG Yiping, LIN Lijin
    2022, 40(6):  853-861.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112113
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (4487KB) ( 102 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to investigate the effects of brassinolide on the growth and nutrient absorption of Cyphomandra betacea seedlings. 【Method】 In this experiment, potted experiments were conducted to study the effects of brassinolide spraying of different concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L) on seedling biomass, photosynthetic pigment content, antioxidant enzyme activity and nutrient absorption of C. betacea seedlings. 【Result】 Brassinolide increased the biomass of all organs in C. betacea seedlings. With the increase of brassinolide concentration, the biomass of root, stem and leaf of C. betacea seedlings increased firstly and then decreased, and reached the maximum value when the brassinolide concentration was 1.5 mg/L, which increased by 112.92%, 65.14% and 55.57% compared with the control, respectively. Brassinolide increased the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid), catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity, while decreased the activity of peroxidase. Brassinolide increased the contents of N, P and K in different organs of C. betacea seedlings to a certain extent. With the increase of brassinolide concentration, the contents of N, P and K in all organs of C. betacea seedlings were firstly increased and then decreased, and reached the maximum value when brassinolide concentration was 1.5 mg/L. 【Conclusion】 Brassinolide could promote the growth and nutrient absorption of C. betacea seedlings with the optimal concentration was 1.5 mg/L.
    Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Waterlogging Tolerance in Kiwifruit Seedlings
    YUAN Xuezhen, PENG Yuting, TU Meiyan, LIANG Dong, XU Zihong, WANG Lingli, XIA Hui
    2022, 40(6):  862-871.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204139
    Abstract ( 163 )   PDF (30160KB) ( 89 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The effect of application of different concentrations of melatonin (MT) solution on the physiological characteristics of two kiwifruit varieties 'Bruno' and 'Hongshi 2' under flooding stress were investigated, it provides a basis for improving the waterlogging tolerance of kiwifruit by using MT in cultivation. 【Method】 The seedlings were pretreated with 0、50、100 and 200 µmol/L MT solution, and then subjected to waterlogging treatment. The relevant physiological indexes were measured, and the optimal concentration of exogenous MT was evaluated comprehensively by subject-function method. 【Result】 Application of melatonin significantly mitigated the damage degree of seedling leaves and roots in both cultivars caused by waterlogging, and the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and gas exchange parameters were significantly increased compared with the waterlogging control, while the relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content were decreased compared with the control. These results indicated that MT pretreatment alleviated the damage caused by waterlogging stress on kiwifruit seedlings to some extent and improved waterlogging resistance. through comprehensive evaluation of the membership function, the optimal of MT pretreatment concentration for both cultivars was 100 μmol/L. 【Conclusion】 Different concentrations of exogenous MT pretreatment alleviated the damage caused by flooding to kiwifruit seedlings, and the pretreatment concentration of 100 μmol/L MT had the best effect.
    Study on the Antibacterial Mechanism of Chinese Medicine Compound on Kiwifruit Ulcer Pathogen
    HE Fuyin, LI Fenghua, SHI Hao, WANG Rencai
    2022, 40(6):  872-877.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202104159
    Abstract ( 132 )   PDF (7274KB) ( 71 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To study the bacteriostasis mechanism of the compound extracted from Acorus tatarinowii,Scutellaria baicalensis,Syzygium aromaticum and other traditional chinese medicines against the pathogen of kiwifruit ulcer. 【Method】 The minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of Chinese herbal compound against kiwifruit ulcer pathogen were determined by Oxford cup method.The growth curve, cell wall and cell membrane integrity, intracellular DNA content changes of the bacteria were measured, combined with the transmission electron microscope of bacteria, the mechanism of action of chinese medicine compound on kiwifruit ulcer pathogen was comprehensively analyzed. 【Result】 The minimum inhibitory concentration was 3.125 mg/mL. The minimum sterilization concentration is 12.5 mg/mL. Chinese medicine compound can destroy the cell wall and cell membrane of kiwifruit ulcer pathogen, make the intracellular material overflow, reduce the DNA content, but also destroy the morphological structure of the bacteria, make the bacteria distorted, reduce the life activity. 【Conclusion】 The compound of traditional chinese medicine has strong inhibitory effect on kiwifruit ulcer pathogen, and its antibacterial mechanism is affecting the morphology of cell, cell wall, cell membrane, genetic material and so on.
    Effect of surface-covered reflective film on quality of Tunisian soft-seed pomegranate
    TIAN Kun, LI Chengcheng, MENG Yinyin, YU Guoqiang, JIN Xuewei, WU Hongxia, DENG Qunxian, ZHANG Huifen
    2022, 40(6):  878-882.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202109160
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (1413KB) ( 79 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To explore the effect of covering the orchard ground with PET aluminum-coated silver reflective film on pomegranate fruit quality. 【Method】 Fruits of 'Tunisia soft-seed' pomegranate cultivated in Tongkuang village of Huili city were used as materials. Fruit quality of covering with reflective film treatment and none reflective film treatment was comprehensively evaluated. 【Result】 The experimental results showed that the surface reflective film could significantly promote the stained area of pomegranate fruit and accelerate fruit coloring, and the effect on improving the coloration of fruit under canopy was most obviously. When the ground was covered with reflective film, the anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice under the canopy increased by 11.44%, the total phenol content increased by 3.03%,and the total flavonoids content increased by 12.43%.The antioxidant capacity of DPPH in the middle and lower layers increased by 7.26% and 12.89%,respectively,and FRAP in the upper and lower layers increased by 3.67% and 9.30%,respectively. The soluble sugar content in the lower layer was increased by 4.58%,the titratable acid and TSS were not significantly affected. 【Conclusion】 Covering reflective film can significantly accelerate fruit qualityof the middle and lower layers of the pomegranate crown, which is an effective method to improve fruit quality in production.
    Forestry·Ecology
    Tensile Properties of Single Root and Shear Properties of Root-Soil Complex of Bashania qiaojiaensis Yi et J. Y. Shi
    ZHANG Chuntao, MA Jiangang, DING Mingjing, XIANG Xiaohua
    2022, 40(6):  883-892.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207146
    Abstract ( 146 )   PDF (2419KB) ( 86 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to enrich the research content of root mechanics of bamboo and provide more plant selection for soil consolidation and slope protection plants in alpine region. 【Method】 The tensile properties of single root of Bashania qiaojiaensis Yi et J. Y. Shi and the mechanical characteristics of root-soil composite were measured in Yaoshan National Nature Reserve, Yunnan province. 【Result】 The maximum tensile resistance range of B. qiaojiaensis Yi et J. Y. Shi root system is 11.94-194.14N, the tensile strength is 14.78-35.77 MPa, the ultimate elongation is 119.90%-155.04%, and the Young's modulus is 9.53-27.81 MPa. The root diameter has a significantly positive power function relationship with the tensile resistance, is significantly negatively correlated with tensile strength and Young's modulus, and linearly correlated with ultimate elongation. The content of cellulose decreased with the increase of root diameter, while the content of hemicellulose and lignin increased with the increase of root diameter. The root tensile properties were positively correlated with cellulose and negatively correlated with hemicellulose and lignin. The B. qiaojiaensis Yi et J. Y. Shi root line increased soil cohesion by 0.45-1.72 kPa, and the increment of cohesion increased with the increase of root diameter. 【Conclusion】 The root of B. qiaojiaensis Yi et J. Y. Shi shows good tensile resistance, which effectively improves the shear resistance of the soil and can be used as a plant to hold the soil and stabilize the slope in alpine mountains.
    Data Updating Accuracy Difference Analysis Based on Tree and Stand Growth Rate Model
    WU Heng, XU Hui
    2022, 40(6):  893-900.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112135
    Abstract ( 121 )   PDF (2269KB) ( 90 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The aim is to provide basis for updating annual monitoring data by analyzing the difference of growth rate model types. 【Method】 The models of DBH and stock growth rate for18 tree species (groups), stand volume growth rate model for 13 main arbor types, DBH single model, age single model and DBH -age dual model, and simultaneous estimation models (volume, biomass, and carbon storage) for 10 main tree types were established by applying nonlinear regression estimation method with the data from the sixth to ninth consecutive Forest Inventory of Sichuan province in 2002, 2017, 2012 and 2017. 【Result】 The R2 coefficients of model fitting are all greater than 0.9, which could meet the simulation update of stand volume, biomass, and carbon storage growth, and solve the compatibility problem of volume, biomass and carbon storage. The mixed effect model of unit area volume provided an effective method for the stock update based on stand factors. 【Conclusion】 The binary DBH - age growth rate model has higher accuracy for prediction of stand and forest, the single DBH growth rate model has higher accuracy for prediction of scatter trees, and the single DBH stand growth rate model has higher updating accuracy for quadrangle trees.
    The Effect of Etiolation on Shoots Anatomical Structure and Adventitious Root Formation of Tree Peony
    XIE Mengyu, XU Ke, WANG Xinyi, WANG Qi, SUN Yue, YUAN Tao
    2022, 40(6):  901-906.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112045
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (15088KB) ( 57 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In order to improve the reproductive efficiency of tree peony layering. 【Method】 Tree peony cultivars Luoyang Hong and Huangjin Cui were used as experimental materials, after etiolation treatment and combination with stem gridling and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) treatment, the effects of etiolation treatment on shoot anatomical structure, adventitious root rooting rate and root quality of tree peony were studied. 【Result】 In the etiolated sites of Luoyang Hong and Huangjin Cui, there were more parenchyma cells, delayed development of phellem cells, loose tissue outside phellem, and adventitious roots appeared first compared with the control. The rooting rate and root quality of Luoyang Hong and Huangjin Cui with etiolation treatment were better than those of the control, the rooting rate of primary root was 88.9% and 97.8%, respectively. The average primary root number, the average secondary root number, the average secondary root number on each primary root, average primary root length and diameter of Huangjin Cui were 8.08, 59.6, 6.8, 12.42 cm and 1.97 mm, respectively, which was the best performance in all treatments. 【Conclusion】 The etiolation treatment reduced the lignification degree of tree peony shoots, shorten the time of adventitious root formation during layering propagation, and improved the rooting rate and root quality of adventitious roots.
    Study on Vegetation Dynamics in Wanglang National Nature Reserve Based on RS and GIS
    LIU Qiang, HU Yufu
    2022, 40(6):  907-912.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112090
    Abstract ( 152 )   PDF (17757KB) ( 63 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To master the vegetation restoration in Wanglang national nature reserve in Sichuan Province over the past 10 years after Wenchuan Earthquake, and understand the vegetation coverage of giant panda habitat. 【Method】 Based on RS and GIS technology, TM remote sensing data in 2011 and oli remote sensing data in 2020 were selected, and the change monitoring of surface vegetation covered in Wanglang Nature Reserve in recent 10 years was completed by combining maximum likelihood classification and visual interpretation. 【Result】 ① the shrub area of the reserve decreased by 23.17 km2, the meadow area increased by 20.71 km2, the areas of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and coniferous forest increased by 25.55 km2 and 8.14 km2 respectively, and the evergreen broad-leaved forest decreased by 31.24 km2. ②Through the land use transfer matrix, it was obtained that the shrub in the north of the reserve was mainly transformed into coniferous and broad-leaved forest; the shrub in the middle was mainly transformed into coniferous and broad-leaved forest; and the evergreen broad-leaved forest was mainly transformed into coniferous and broad-leaved forest in the East. ③ the main driving factors for the change of vegetation species coverage were human factors and natural restoration of vegetation after the disaster. 【Conclusion】 Coniferous forest and coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest are the main growth areas of bamboo and the main habitat of giant pandas. The growth of their area is conducive to the protection and reproduction of giant pandas.
    Investigation on the Distribution and Genetic Structure of Solenopsis invicta Buren in Sichuan Province
    ZHANG Tianyi, LI Xuyang, GONG Changwei, WANG Yumeng, WEN Yao, ZHU Xincheng, LI Bin, WANG Xuegui
    2022, 40(6):  913-919.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203104
    Abstract ( 204 )   PDF (4486KB) ( 175 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper aims to investigate the rapid spread of red imported fire ants(Solenopsis invicta)in Sichuan Province, and to determine the way of spread by analyzing the genetic structure of the geographical population of S. invicta. 【Method】 Visual inspection was used to investigate the main incidence areas of S. invicta in Sichuan Province. Eight pairs of microsatellite primers were used to study the genetic diversity and differentiation of five geographical populations of S. invicta in Sichuan Province. 【Result】 The incidences of S. invicta in Panzhihua, Xichang and Huili were serious, with the epidemic level of grade 4; and Mianyang was grade 3; Guangyuan and Luzhou were grade 1; Dazhou was the least, 0. Sixty alleles were detected at eight microsatellite locus in five geographical populations of S. invicta, and the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 36.67% to 78.33%, showing moderate to high polymorphism. The apparent heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were both higher than 0.5, revealed the genetic diversity was rich. The average coefficient of differentiation among populations reached 0.4, and a certain degree of genetic variation appeared among populations. The gene flow between different populations ranged from 0.517 4 to 2.456 2, suggesting that some degree of genetic drift had occurred. The genetic distance between Panzhihua population and other populations was the longest and the genetic difference was great. 【Conclusion】 Except for the Panxi region, the epidemic situation of S. invicta has been effectively controlled in other regions. The long-distance spread of S. invicta in Sichuan Province could be mainly caused by human transmission, so it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and quarantine of S. invicta.
    Animal Science
    Preparation of triterpenoids from leaves of Alismatis Rhizoma and its effects on the metabolism of Sulfamonomethoxine Sodium in rats
    WANG Yuxin, TAO Mengting, ZHANG Qi, ZHAO Yuzhe, LAN Kun, TAO Chao, LI Lixia
    2022, 40(6):  920-927.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205165
    Abstract ( 156 )   PDF (6755KB) ( 140 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To optimize the optimal enzymolysis process for the extraction of total triterpenes from leaves of Alismatis Rhizoma and to explore the effect of total triterpene extract on the metabolism of sulfamonomethoxine sodium in rats. 【Method】 Taking the extraction rate of total triterpenes as the indicator, the optimal process parameters were selected by response surface methodology on the basis of single factor. The effect of total triterpenes on the metabolism of sulfamonomethoxine sodium in rats was detected by determining the plasma concentration. 【Result】 The optimal enzymolysis process for the extraction of total triterpenes from leaves of Alismatis Rhizoma was finally revised as follows: the ratio of cellulase to papain 1∶2, the amount of enzyme 1.20%, the ratio of material to liquid 1∶25, the enzymolysis temperature 50℃, the enzymolysis time 70 min. The total triterpenoids from leaves of Alismatis Rhizoma can accelerate the metabolism of sulfamonomethoxine sodium in rats and reduce its residues. 【Conclusion】 The enzymolysis process is stable and feasible, and has the value of popularization and application. The total triterpenoids extract from leaves of Alismatis Rhizoma can accelerate the metabolism of sulfamonomethoxine sodium, shorten the withdrawal period of sulfamonomethoxine sodium in veterinary clinic and reduce the residue of antibiotics.
    Smoke Disinfection of Benzalkonium Chloride and Deciquam on Respiratory Irritation and Total Safety in Rats
    LI Nanxin, CHEN Yang, CHEN Shiqi, ZHANG Jifu, PENG Yiding, ZHONG Jianan, ZHANG Wei, FU Hualin
    2022, 40(6):  928-934.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204144
    Abstract ( 263 )   PDF (14118KB) ( 71 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to investigate the toxic effect of benzalkonium chloride solution and deciquam solution on animals by smoke disinfection. 【Method】 Forty healthy rats aged 6 to 7 weeks were randomly divided into four groups: benzalkonium chloride group, deciquam group, smoke assistant group and deionized water group. Rats in each group were exposed to the corresponding smoky environment for free exercise for 30 min every day, and the safety and respiratory irritation of benzalkonium chloride and deciquam for smoke disinfection were evaluated after 14 days. 【Result】 Compared with the deionized water group, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, water intake, organ index, blood biochemical index, blood routine index, the concentration of BCA protein and LDH in lung washing fluid of smoke assistant group, benzalkonium chloride group and deciquam group (P>0.05). No obvious pathological changes were found in organ pathological sections, but different degrees of slight damage of the nasal mucosa could be seen. 【Conclusion】 The results indicated that benzalkonium chloride and deciquam were safe for smoke disinfection in rats and slightly irritating to respiratory mucosa, but rats could recover quickly.
    Study on Pasture Yield and Interspecific Relationship of Mixed Pasture of Avean sativa and Vicia sativa
    XIN Yafen, ZHANG Lei, CHEN Chen, LI Jiayi, SHE Ning, HE Weixian, LIU Zhiwei, YAN Yanhong
    2022, 40(6):  935-941.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205124
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (2232KB) ( 144 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aimed to screen the best oat (Avena sativa) and common vetch (Vicia sativa) mixture combination in the Tibetan area of the Northwest Sichuan Plateau. 【Method】 Using oat (A0) and common vetch (A4) as control, and the seeding rates of oat and common vetch were 2∶1, 3∶1, 4∶1 (A1, A2 and A3) as treatment. The forage yield, quality and interspecific relationship were measured respectively, and the membership function method was used for comprehensive analysis. 【Result】 The mixed sowing of oat and common vetch could effectively improve grass production performance, among which, A1 treatment of the highest total hay yield was 25 301.22 kg/hm2. The yield of oat accounted for more than 94% of the total mixed grass production, and the weed yield tended to decrease as the proportion of oat increased among all mixed sowing treatments. Water soluble carbohydrate content and tended to increase with increasing proportion of oat. Crude protein content was significantly higher in A1 treatment than in A2 and A3 treatments (P<0.05). In the mixed broadcast system, the relative feeding value (RFV) of the A1 treatment was significantly higher than that of others (P<0.05), up to 101.31. In the mixed grassland, oat was always more competitive than common vetch, and the relative yield total of each treatment was greater than 1. By subordinative function to evaluated the forage yield and quality of mixed grassland, it is concluded that A4>A1>A2>A0>A3. However,as the common vetch is easy to fall down when sowing alone, it is difficult to harvest. 【Conclusion】 The mixed seeding rate of oat and common vetch is 2∶1, which is the most suitable for planting artificial grassland in Tibetan areas on the northwest Sichuan plateau.
    Food Engineering
    Frequency Variation and Difference Analysis of Electrical Properties of Pulp of Three Seed Melons
    XIONG Shilei, WANG Qihui, WAN Fangxin, HUANG Xiaopeng
    2022, 40(6):  942-949.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202104060
    Abstract ( 131 )   PDF (7417KB) ( 63 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To analyze and compare the variation patterns of electrical properties of the pulp of three seed melons and their differences. 【Method】 The electrical properties of the three seed melon pulp were measured by parallel plate electrode method,and the differences and correlations between them were investigated,and their regression models with frequency were established and validated. 【Result】 In the range of 163.28~8 000 kHz,Z,Q,Cp and Rp of the three seed melon pulp gradually decreased with the increase of frequency,and G and X gradually increased; there was a highly significant negative correlation (P<0.01) between X and G and Lp,and a highly significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with Rp and Cp of the three seeded melon pulp;there was no correlation between D and Cp;in the 163.28~8 000 kHz range,with the increase of frequency,Z showed Expdec2 model distribution,G and Rp showed Polynomial model distribution,Q and Cp showed Allometricl1 model distribution,and X showed Expassoc model distribution, and the coefficients of determination were above 0.93;model validation showed that. Allometricl1 model can better model the relationship between Cp and frequency. 【Conclusion】 The results of the study can provide a theoretical basis for quality testing studies on the electrical properties of fresh seed melons.
    Optimization of Fermention Conditions of A Strain for L-Serine Production and Its Synthesizing Process
    ZHENG Guihua, ZOU Wenan, ZHAO Qian
    2022, 40(6):  950-957.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205130
    Abstract ( 165 )   PDF (5941KB) ( 140 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Objective to optimize the medium components and culture condition of E.coli-SRZ018,which is a kind of genetic engineering bacterium,observe the impact of tetrahydrofolate,pyridoxal phosphate,formaldehyde and other various factors on the conversion rates of substrate. 【Method】 Turbidimetric and HPLC-ESI/MS were used to determine biomass and amino acids respectively. 【Result】 The optimum composition of the medium was determined as follow:dipotassium phosphate 0.8 g/L,corn syrup 35 g/L,glycerol 8 g/L,magnesium sulfate 1 g/L,peptone 10 g/L. Consequently,the level of biomass reached 2.88 g/L. The influence of the critical parameters on substrate conversion rates was analyzed,and results showed the content of glycine,pyridoxal phosphate,tetrahydrofolate in enzyme-catalyzed solution were 15 mmol/L,0.4 mmol/L and 7 mmol/L respectively,and formaldehyde was added until its concentration reached 10 mmol/L,adjusting the pH of reaction system into 7.5,and conversion rate reached 95.6%. 【Conclusion】 Formol titration could improve the conversion rate of substrate significantly when enzymatic conversion technology for L-serine was applied.
    Agricultural Economy
    How does Signing a Production Agreement Affect the Production of Mushrooms: Based on the Mediating Role of Factory Cognition
    LIU Enling, LUO Xiaofeng, ZHANG Junbiao, TANG Lin
    2022, 40(6):  958-965.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203140
    Abstract ( 428 )   PDF (1429KB) ( 87 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The emergence of industrialized professional mushroom sticks has significantly improved the production efficiency of edible fungus growers, and played an important role in increasing farmers' income and high-quality production. In reality, the promotion of professional mushroom sticks is not ideal. Therefore, it has certain practical guiding significance to study the choice of farmers' edible fungi production behavior. 【Method】 Based on the survey data of farmers in 11 major edible mushroom producing provinces in China, this paper uses the probit model and the intermediary effect model to empirically test the effect of signing a production agreement and factory cognition on farmers' selection of mushroom production behavior. 【Result】 The results show that: First, signing a production agreement with edible fungus companies or cooperatives can significantly promote edible fungus growers to choose professionally produced fungus sticks. Second, the higher the farmers' cognition of factory-based professional stick making is, the easier it is for them to choose professionally produced fungus sticks. Third, farmers' cognition of factory-based professional stick making plays an intermediary role between signing a production agreement and the choice of farmers' production methods, that is, signing a production agreement can influence farmers' behavior in choosing professional bacterial sticks by improving farmers' cognition of factory-made professional sticks. 【Conclusion】 Based on this, it is concluded that the"farmers + cooperatives/companies"model should be actively promoted, the technical promotion capabilities of edible fungi enterprises and cooperatives should be improved, and farmers'cognition of the factory-based professional stick-making model should be promoted in various ways to promote the transformation and upgrading of farmers' production methods.
    Logic and Mechanism of Relative Poverty Management from the Perspective of Rural Revitalization Strategy:A Case Study of Hebei Province
    KANG Han
    2022, 40(6):  966-972.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207145
    Abstract ( 547 )   PDF (1427KB) ( 115 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The focus of China's poverty alleviation strategy has shifted from the overall goal of poverty alleviation to the solution of relative poverty, to meet the refined and personalized needs of poverty governance transformation, to consolidate and expand the effective connection between poverty alleviation achievements and rural revitalization, and to systematically establish the logic and mechanism of relative poverty governance to match the rural revitalization and development plan, so as to provide theoretical guidance and value reference for comprehensively promoting rural revitalization. 【Method】 Based on the analysis of the connotation, characteristics and governance strategy of relative poverty, based on the principle of systematic analysis, the empirical study of local relative poverty governance in Hebei was conducted to explain the logic and mechanism of relative poverty governance from the perspective of rural revitalization strategy. 【Result】 Due to the differences in the basic conditions for promoting rural vitalization, regional governance emphases were different, but there was overlapping consensus on the logic of relative poverty governance. Construct long-term relative poverty governance mechanism based on the logic of relative poverty governance. 【Conclusion】 The logic of “one core and five governance” for relative poverty is extracted with the party's political leadership as the core, industrial technology governance, cultural internal governance, social co-governance, good governance of people's livelihood and ecological rule of law as the means. Construct a relative poverty governance mechanism from six aspects: organizational promotion, scientific and technological innovation, endogenous motivation, collaborative governance, income growth and legal protection.