Effect of Different Improvement Treatments on the Soil Physicochemical Property Changes of Kiwifruit Orchard
- YOU Haoyu, CHEN Dagang, XU Kaiwei, PENG Dandan, XIAO Sujie, LUO Zhongwei, WANG Zuhua, CHEN Yuanxue
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【Objective】 Aiming at the production problems of heavy soil viscosity, poor water retention,poor aeration and permeability,and poor plant growth in kiwifruit orchard, the changes of physical and chemical properties of clayey soil in orchard under different improvement measures were investigated, and the optimal soil improvement scheme was screened. 【Method】 Using 1 m³ open-pit pool planting simulation test,design totally 7 treatments including control （CK）,20% sand mixed （S20）,40% sand mixed （S40）,3 kg/pool branches returned to the field （B3）,10 kg/pool wormcast returned to the field （W10）,3 kg branches and 10 kg/pool wormcast returned to the field （B3+W10） and 20 kg/pool wormcast returned to the field （W20）,and determine the related physical and chemical indexes of soil. The changes of soil physical and chemical properties were synthetically evaluated by PCA（principal component analysis）. 【Result】 W20,W10,B3+W10,B3 and S20 treatments could effectively reduce soil surface compactness and soil bulk density,there are significant difference between W20, W10, B3+W10 and CK （P<0.05）. W20,W10 and B3+W10 treatments could increase field water capacity,saturated water content and capillary porosity of soil,enhance soil moisture holding capacity,and significantly increase （P<0.05） total nitrogen,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and organic matter contents of soil. B3,S20 and S40 treatments decreased field water capacity,saturated water content and overall porosity, and S40 with the weakest water holding capacity will be easily leak and arid, but there is no significant difference between B3 and CK （P>0.05）. The results of PCA showed that the combined effect due to the changes of soil physical and chemical properties in kiwifruit orchard under different soil improvement treatments were as follows：W20（3.346）>B3+W10（1.655）>W10（1.529）>B3（-0.705）>S20（-0.712）>CK（-2.489）>S40（-2.624）. 【Conclusion】 Sand mixed （S20） can reduce soil bulk density,degree of packing and water holding capacity,increase the non-capillary porosity, and improve air and water permeability in soil. However,sand mixed （S20,S40） will lead to the decrease of water retaining capacity and soil fertility,so it is suggested to strengthen the corresponding water and fertilizer management. The application of wormcast in soil （W10,B3+W10,W20） can significantly reduce soil bulk density and compactness,promote total nitrogen,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium,significantly increase organic matter content,and so improve soil fertility. While the improvement of soil bulk density,water capacity and porosity by branches returned （B3） was relatively weak. Combined with the results of principal component analysis （PCA）,it was known that to improve the physical and chemical properties of the viscosus and sticky soil in kiwifruit orchard the relatively scientific and reasonable measures was mixing 20% sand and synergistical applying 20 kg/0.6 m3 wormcast organic fertilizer （the mixing depth is 60 cm）.