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28 October 2022, Volume 40 Issue 5
  • Research Progress of Lesion Mimic Mutants in Main Plants and Its Implication for Wheat Related Studies
    MA Jian, LI Cong, TIAN Rong, TANG Huaping, $\boxed...
    2022, 40(5):  633-644.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204100
    Abstract ( 197 )   PDF (5446KB) ( 128 )   Save
    【Objective】 To understand the research progress and regulation mode associated with the formation of lesion mimic in plants,and lay a foundation for genetic improvement of leaf traits and mining of disease-resistant genes,we reported on progress on lesion mimic genes in main plants. 【Method】 The origin,nomenclature,classification, genetic mechanism and disease resistance of lesion mimic mutants were summarized and analyzed by collecting and reviewing the relevant literature in this article. 【Result】 The formation of lesion mimic spots may affect the growth and development of plants. Furthermore, the formation of lesion mimic spots is similar with hypersensitive response leading to programmed cell death and enhancing the resistance to disease. Numerous studies have proved that lesion mimic genes play an important role in biological stress in main plants including Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, maize, and barley. 【Conclusion】 Many lesion mimic genes have been reported in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. The research of lesion mimic genes in other crops (including wheat) is relatively slow. However, research progress of lesion mimic genes in the main plants and the development of sequencing technology,molecular biology and transgenic technology will greatly accelerate the cloning and dissecting of regulatory mechanisms of lesion mimic genes in wheat. Lesion mimic genes have important theoretical values and application prospect in the future.
    Correlation Research between Anogenital Distance and Milk Production Performance in Chinese Holstein Dairy Cattle
    ZHAO Kaisen, KANG Zhe, FAN Huimei, RAO Han, SUN We...
    2022, 40(5):  645-648.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204108
    Abstract ( 59 )   PDF (1653KB) ( 31 )   Save
    【Objective】 This study aimed to elucidate the distribution rule of anogenital distance of Chinese Holstein dairy cattle, and explore its correlation with phenotypic indexes such as body size, linearity and milk yield of dairy cows, so as to provide theoretical basis for individual breeding and herd quality improvement of dairy cows. 【Method】 The phenotypic data of phenotypic indexes from 782 cows and the milk yield of each parity were recorded in the 2017—2021 archives of Sichuan Ninggang Dairy Farm. The normal distribution test, single factor analysis and correlation analysis were performed by SPSS 27.0. 【Result】 The anogenital distance showed a normal distribution and did not change significantly with the age. The anogenital distance was positively correlated with the breast circumference of dairy cows (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with the milk yield of each parity. With the increase of the anogenital distance, the milk yield of the first and third parity decreased significantly (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 It can be concluded that the anogenital distance is related to the milk production performance of dairy cows, and can be used as a candidate trait for breeding high-yielding dairy cows.
    Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Promoter Region of Lin28B Gene in Hetian Sheep
    SUI Zhiyuan, ZHANG Jihu, LI Qingjin, ZHANG Zhishua...
    2022, 40(5):  649-655.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202202103
    Abstract ( 48 )   PDF (9353KB) ( 27 )   Save
    【Objective】 The promoter sequence and structure of Lin28B gene in Hetian sheep were analyzed to lay the foundation for further analysis of its transcriptional regulation mechanism. 【Method】 According to the 5' flanking region sequence of sheep Lin28B gene in Ensembl database, PCR primers were designed for amplification, cloning, sequencing and sequence identification to obtain the promoter region sequence of Lin28B gene in Hetian sheep, and the relevant bioinformatics softwares were used to predict and analyze the promoter region sequence. 【Result】 The 2 993 bp sequence of Lin28B gene promoter region of Hetian sheep was successfully obtained, and GC content was 39.33%. The core promoter region was predicted, and 7 potential transcription start sites were found in the promoter region. Besides, 2 TATA-boxes and 2 CpG islands were found, but no CAAT-box was found. The sequence was also found to contain binding sites for transcription factors such as AP-1, Oct-1, p53, Pax-4, STAT3 and TGIF. 【Conclusion】 Bioinformatics softwares were used to predict and analyze the promoter sequence of Lin28B gene in Hetian Sheep, which can provide a theoretical basis for further research on the regulation mechanism of Lin28B gene on sheep puberty.
    Analyses of Genomic Inbreeding Coefficients and Selection Signals in Chuanzhong Black Goats
    GUO Jiazhong, SUN Xueliang, XIANG Qiunan, XIAO Fen...
    2022, 40(5):  656-663.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209126
    Abstract ( 45 )   PDF (5966KB) ( 34 )   Save
    【Objective】 This study aimed to evaluate inbreeding levels and identify selection signals in Chuanzhong Black goats using high-density SNP data. 【Method】 The whole-genome sequencing data for 41 goats were used to screen genome-wide SNPs, analyze linkage disequilibrium and effective population size and detect runs of homozygosity in Chuanzhong Black goats. Individual genomic inbreeding coefficients were obtained and compared based on five methods (i.e., FROH, FUNI, FHOM, FVR1, and FVR2). The positively selected genes in Chuanzhong Black goats were identified by using ROH islands, iHH12, and XP-EHH. 【Result】 The linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that the genome-wide mean r2 decreased rapidly from 0.51 between SNP pairs at a distance of 10 bp to 0.20 at 1 000 bp. The estimated effective population size showed a continuous reduction from 5 696 at 999 generations ago to 190 at 13 generations ago in Chuanzhong Black goats. On the basis of identified ROH, the inbreeding levels at current generation were mainly caused by 250-500 generations (FROH 0.1-0.2 Mb) and 100-250 generations (FROH 0.2-0.5 Mb) in Chuanzhong Black goats. In addition, FROH showed significant correlations with FUNI and FHOMP<0.05), and the highest correlation (r=0.983) was between FUNI and FVR1. A total of 67 postively selected genes were detected using ROH islands, iHH12, and XP-EHH. Strikingly, both NCAPG and LCORL genes were under strong selection, in which four missense and two frameshift mutations were present. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study provide a reference for the genetic improvement of Chuanzhong Black goats. The identified positively selected genes may promote the application of the marker-assisted selection of Chuanzhong Black goats.
    Maternal Genetic Diversity, Differentiation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Three Yak Populations in Qinghai, China
    BAI Shirui, MA Zhijie, MEI Sa, CHEN Shengmei, CHEN...
    2022, 40(5):  664-669.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207120
    Abstract ( 128 )   PDF (2707KB) ( 37 )   Save
    【Objective】 The current study was conducted to investigate the maternal genetic diversity, differentiation, clustering relationship, and genetic background of three yak populations (i.e., Dari, Maqin, and Ganglong populations) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai, China at the molecular level. 【Method】 The 638 bp mtDNA D-loop sequences of 33 Ganglong yaks were sequenced firstly and then analyzed with corresponding sequences from 37 Dari yaks and 32 Maqin yaks reported in GenBank. 【Result】 The results showed that a total of 32 haplotypes were identified according to the 638 bp nucleotide sequence comparisons, of which the Dari, Maqin and Ganglong yak populations had 8, 6, and 8 specific haplotypes, respectively. The total haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of three populations were 0.921±0.014 and 0.020±0.010, respectively. Among them, the value of haplotype diversity was the highest in Ganglong yak (0.951±0.019), middle in Dari yak (0.901±0.034), but lowest in Maqin yak (0.887±0.033). Analyses of genetic differentiation and gene flow showed a moderate genetic differentiation and poor gene exchanged between Ganglong population and Dari (Fst=0.118; Nm=1.869), Maqin (Fst=0.129; Nm=1.688) populations respectively, while a low genetic differentiation and frequent gene exchanged between Dari and Maqin (Fst=0.021; Nm=11.655) populations. Dari and Maqin populations clustered firstly in cluster analysis, and then gathered with Ganglong yak population. Maternal phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of the three yak populations represented two maternal lineages (I and II) with two maternal origins. 【Conclusion】 The three yak populations in Golog Prefecture, Qinghai, China all have unique maternal genetic information. Ganglong and Dari yak populations have richer maternal genetic diversity than that of Maqin population. The genetic differentiation degrees between Ganglong and Dari or Maqin yak populations are higher, while the differentiation level between Dari and Maqin yak populations is lower. Each yak population is composed of two maternal lineages, speculating that they all have two maternal origins.
    Effect of Wheat Replacing Corn on Rumen Development of Tibetan Sheep
    ZHOU Li, ZHANG Fengshuo, GAO Zhanhong, LI Pengxian...
    2022, 40(5):  670-675.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207125
    Abstract ( 33 )   PDF (9720KB) ( 30 )   Save
    【Objective】 The purpose of the experiment was to analyze the effects of replacing corn in concentrate with 10% wheat flour on the development of regurgitation morphology, rumen digestive enzyme activity and antioxidant properties of plateau Tibetan sheep. 【Method】 Total 60 male plateau-type Tibetan lambs of 2-3 months old with good body condition, consistent parity and similar initial weight were selected and randomly divided into two groups, with 5 replicates in each group and 6 sheep in each replicate. The control group was fed with corn diet, and the test group was fed with 10% wheat flour instead of corn in concentrate. The trial was divided into pre-feeding period of 10 days and post-trial period of 90 days. 【Result】 ①Compared with the control group, the thickness of the stratum corneum in rumen, the length and width of the papilla of reticulum and the thickness of the mucosal layer of abomasum in the experimental group were significantly increased (P<0.05); ②The activity of trypsin in rumen for test group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05); ③Compared with the control group, the content of malondialdehyde in the rumen of the test group was decreased significantly (P<0.05); ④ There was no significant difference in rumen pH between the two groups (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 To sum up, the use of 10% wheat flour instead of corn in concentrate can promote the development of rumen morphology of plateau Tibetan sheep, and enhance rumen digestive enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity.
    Effects of Bioengineering Protein API on Growth Performance and Gut Health of Broilers
    PENG Chunfang, ZHAO Hua, TANG Yuting, ZHAO Wanxin,...
    2022, 40(5):  676-682.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204123
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (5279KB) ( 8 )   Save
    【Objective】 This study aims to investigate the effects of different levels of bioengineering protein API (Artificial parasin I protein, contains catfish antimicrobial peptide parasin I functional fragment) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal health of broilers. 【Method】 450 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 replicates per group and 9 individuals in each replicate. The control group was fed with the basal diet (BD), and the experimental groups were supplemented with 250, 500, 750, 1 000 mg/kg of API. The trial lasted for 42 d. 【Result】 ①The API supplementation improved the final body weight of chickens and 500 mg/kg API group improved by 79.62 g/bird compared with the control group (P>0.05). ②API supplementation decreased the jejunal crypt depth and increased its chorionic to crypt ratio (P<0.05), while had no impact on the histomorphology of the duodenum and ileum (P>0.05), and exhibited a quadratic linear change tendency (P=0.008). ③The API supplementation tended to increase the α-amylase activity in jejunal mucosa (0.05<P<0.1), and 500 mg/kg API group had the highest α-amylase activity and showed a quadratic linear change in response to levels of API supplementation (P=0.008). ④API supplementation increased the number of total bacteria in the cecum (P<0.01), and 750 mg/kg API supplementation decreased the number of Escherichia coli P<0.05) and increased the number of Lactobacillus. The results were all quadratic linearly correlated with the level of API supplementation (P<0.01). ⑤API supplementation had limited effect on the mRNA abundance of ZO-1, CLDN-1, OCLN and MUC2 in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05); 500 and 750 mg/ kg API supplementation down-regulated the expression abundance of TNF-α in the duodenum (P<0.05); API addition up-regulated the expression abundance of IL-10 in the jejunum (P<0.05) and down-regulated the expression abundance of TNF-α in the jejunum (P<0.05), and the expression abundance of IFN-γP<0.05). 【Conclusion】 API can improve the intestinal morphological barrier and digestive enzyme ability, and then promote intestinal health of broilers. In general, 750 mg/kg API supplementation exhibits better promoting effect on intestinal health of chickens in present study.
    Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Quality and Dry Matter Degradation Rate of Pineapple Residue Silage
    WANG Zhijing, WU Zhengmin, YIN Fuquan, TAN Weijun,...
    2022, 40(5):  683-689.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203107
    Abstract ( 34 )   PDF (1335KB) ( 57 )   Save
    【Objective】 This study was comducted to explore the effects of lactic acid bacteria on the silage quality and dry matter degradation rate of pineapple residue, 【Method】 The lactic acid bacteria were added to pineapple residue with concentration of 0 and 2.5×108,5.0×108,1.0×109 cfu/kg (groups Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ), with 3 repetitions in each group. The samples were taken after silage at room temperature for 4 weeks to determine the fermentation quality and dry matter degradation rate. 【Result】 The results showed that CP (P<0.05), AA and PA in the Lactobacillus addition group were higher than that in the control group; La and tvfa in group Ⅱ and Ⅳ were higher than that in the control group (P>0.05); Ⅱ nitrite (P<0.05) and DM were lower than that in the control group; NH3-N and NH3-N/TN in the Lactobacillus addition group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The addition level of lactic acid bacteria was significantly correlated with DMD (P<0.05); Rumen fermentation time was significantly correlated with DMD (P<0.01). Lactic acid bacteria can improve DMD by reducing DM, P, NH3-N, NH3-N/TN or increasing ash, CA, CP, La, AA and tvfa. 【Conclusion】 In conclusion, lactic acid bacteria are found to be able to improve the quality and dry matter degradation rate of pineapple residue silage, and the value of 2.5×108 cfu/kg additive amount is appropriate.
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