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28 October 2022, Volume 40 Issue 5
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  • Literature Review
    Research Progress of Lesion Mimic Mutants in Main Plants and Its Implication for Wheat Related Studies
    MA Jian, LI Cong, TIAN Rong, TANG Huaping, $\boxed{\hbox{LAN Xiujin}}$, YAO Qifu
    2022, 40(5):  633-644.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204100
    Abstract ( 198 )   PDF (5446KB) ( 128 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To understand the research progress and regulation mode associated with the formation of lesion mimic in plants,and lay a foundation for genetic improvement of leaf traits and mining of disease-resistant genes,we reported on progress on lesion mimic genes in main plants. 【Method】 The origin,nomenclature,classification, genetic mechanism and disease resistance of lesion mimic mutants were summarized and analyzed by collecting and reviewing the relevant literature in this article. 【Result】 The formation of lesion mimic spots may affect the growth and development of plants. Furthermore, the formation of lesion mimic spots is similar with hypersensitive response leading to programmed cell death and enhancing the resistance to disease. Numerous studies have proved that lesion mimic genes play an important role in biological stress in main plants including Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, maize, and barley. 【Conclusion】 Many lesion mimic genes have been reported in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. The research of lesion mimic genes in other crops (including wheat) is relatively slow. However, research progress of lesion mimic genes in the main plants and the development of sequencing technology,molecular biology and transgenic technology will greatly accelerate the cloning and dissecting of regulatory mechanisms of lesion mimic genes in wheat. Lesion mimic genes have important theoretical values and application prospect in the future.
    Special Topics: Study on Livestock and Poultry Health
    Correlation Research between Anogenital Distance and Milk Production Performance in Chinese Holstein Dairy Cattle
    ZHAO Kaisen, KANG Zhe, FAN Huimei, RAO Han, SUN Wenqiang, WANG Jie, JIA Xianbo, LAI Songjia
    2022, 40(5):  645-648.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204108
    Abstract ( 60 )   PDF (1653KB) ( 31 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aimed to elucidate the distribution rule of anogenital distance of Chinese Holstein dairy cattle, and explore its correlation with phenotypic indexes such as body size, linearity and milk yield of dairy cows, so as to provide theoretical basis for individual breeding and herd quality improvement of dairy cows. 【Method】 The phenotypic data of phenotypic indexes from 782 cows and the milk yield of each parity were recorded in the 2017—2021 archives of Sichuan Ninggang Dairy Farm. The normal distribution test, single factor analysis and correlation analysis were performed by SPSS 27.0. 【Result】 The anogenital distance showed a normal distribution and did not change significantly with the age. The anogenital distance was positively correlated with the breast circumference of dairy cows (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with the milk yield of each parity. With the increase of the anogenital distance, the milk yield of the first and third parity decreased significantly (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 It can be concluded that the anogenital distance is related to the milk production performance of dairy cows, and can be used as a candidate trait for breeding high-yielding dairy cows.
    Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Promoter Region of Lin28B Gene in Hetian Sheep
    SUI Zhiyuan, ZHANG Jihu, LI Qingjin, ZHANG Zhishuai, ZHANG Yongjie, XING Feng
    2022, 40(5):  649-655.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202202103
    Abstract ( 48 )   PDF (9353KB) ( 27 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The promoter sequence and structure of Lin28B gene in Hetian sheep were analyzed to lay the foundation for further analysis of its transcriptional regulation mechanism. 【Method】 According to the 5' flanking region sequence of sheep Lin28B gene in Ensembl database, PCR primers were designed for amplification, cloning, sequencing and sequence identification to obtain the promoter region sequence of Lin28B gene in Hetian sheep, and the relevant bioinformatics softwares were used to predict and analyze the promoter region sequence. 【Result】 The 2 993 bp sequence of Lin28B gene promoter region of Hetian sheep was successfully obtained, and GC content was 39.33%. The core promoter region was predicted, and 7 potential transcription start sites were found in the promoter region. Besides, 2 TATA-boxes and 2 CpG islands were found, but no CAAT-box was found. The sequence was also found to contain binding sites for transcription factors such as AP-1, Oct-1, p53, Pax-4, STAT3 and TGIF. 【Conclusion】 Bioinformatics softwares were used to predict and analyze the promoter sequence of Lin28B gene in Hetian Sheep, which can provide a theoretical basis for further research on the regulation mechanism of Lin28B gene on sheep puberty.
    Analyses of Genomic Inbreeding Coefficients and Selection Signals in Chuanzhong Black Goats
    GUO Jiazhong, SUN Xueliang, XIANG Qiunan, XIAO Fengmin, ZHANG Hongping
    2022, 40(5):  656-663.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202209126
    Abstract ( 45 )   PDF (5966KB) ( 34 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aimed to evaluate inbreeding levels and identify selection signals in Chuanzhong Black goats using high-density SNP data. 【Method】 The whole-genome sequencing data for 41 goats were used to screen genome-wide SNPs, analyze linkage disequilibrium and effective population size and detect runs of homozygosity in Chuanzhong Black goats. Individual genomic inbreeding coefficients were obtained and compared based on five methods (i.e., FROH, FUNI, FHOM, FVR1, and FVR2). The positively selected genes in Chuanzhong Black goats were identified by using ROH islands, iHH12, and XP-EHH. 【Result】 The linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that the genome-wide mean r2 decreased rapidly from 0.51 between SNP pairs at a distance of 10 bp to 0.20 at 1 000 bp. The estimated effective population size showed a continuous reduction from 5 696 at 999 generations ago to 190 at 13 generations ago in Chuanzhong Black goats. On the basis of identified ROH, the inbreeding levels at current generation were mainly caused by 250-500 generations (FROH 0.1-0.2 Mb) and 100-250 generations (FROH 0.2-0.5 Mb) in Chuanzhong Black goats. In addition, FROH showed significant correlations with FUNI and FHOMP<0.05), and the highest correlation (r=0.983) was between FUNI and FVR1. A total of 67 postively selected genes were detected using ROH islands, iHH12, and XP-EHH. Strikingly, both NCAPG and LCORL genes were under strong selection, in which four missense and two frameshift mutations were present. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study provide a reference for the genetic improvement of Chuanzhong Black goats. The identified positively selected genes may promote the application of the marker-assisted selection of Chuanzhong Black goats.
    Maternal Genetic Diversity, Differentiation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Three Yak Populations in Qinghai, China
    BAI Shirui, MA Zhijie, MEI Sa, CHEN Shengmei, CHEN Fuju, GUO Weixing
    2022, 40(5):  664-669.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207120
    Abstract ( 128 )   PDF (2707KB) ( 37 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The current study was conducted to investigate the maternal genetic diversity, differentiation, clustering relationship, and genetic background of three yak populations (i.e., Dari, Maqin, and Ganglong populations) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai, China at the molecular level. 【Method】 The 638 bp mtDNA D-loop sequences of 33 Ganglong yaks were sequenced firstly and then analyzed with corresponding sequences from 37 Dari yaks and 32 Maqin yaks reported in GenBank. 【Result】 The results showed that a total of 32 haplotypes were identified according to the 638 bp nucleotide sequence comparisons, of which the Dari, Maqin and Ganglong yak populations had 8, 6, and 8 specific haplotypes, respectively. The total haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of three populations were 0.921±0.014 and 0.020±0.010, respectively. Among them, the value of haplotype diversity was the highest in Ganglong yak (0.951±0.019), middle in Dari yak (0.901±0.034), but lowest in Maqin yak (0.887±0.033). Analyses of genetic differentiation and gene flow showed a moderate genetic differentiation and poor gene exchanged between Ganglong population and Dari (Fst=0.118; Nm=1.869), Maqin (Fst=0.129; Nm=1.688) populations respectively, while a low genetic differentiation and frequent gene exchanged between Dari and Maqin (Fst=0.021; Nm=11.655) populations. Dari and Maqin populations clustered firstly in cluster analysis, and then gathered with Ganglong yak population. Maternal phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of the three yak populations represented two maternal lineages (I and II) with two maternal origins. 【Conclusion】 The three yak populations in Golog Prefecture, Qinghai, China all have unique maternal genetic information. Ganglong and Dari yak populations have richer maternal genetic diversity than that of Maqin population. The genetic differentiation degrees between Ganglong and Dari or Maqin yak populations are higher, while the differentiation level between Dari and Maqin yak populations is lower. Each yak population is composed of two maternal lineages, speculating that they all have two maternal origins.
    Effect of Wheat Replacing Corn on Rumen Development of Tibetan Sheep
    ZHOU Li, ZHANG Fengshuo, GAO Zhanhong, LI Pengxiang, HOU Shengzhen, GUI Linsheng, WANG Zhiyou
    2022, 40(5):  670-675.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202207125
    Abstract ( 33 )   PDF (9720KB) ( 30 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of the experiment was to analyze the effects of replacing corn in concentrate with 10% wheat flour on the development of regurgitation morphology, rumen digestive enzyme activity and antioxidant properties of plateau Tibetan sheep. 【Method】 Total 60 male plateau-type Tibetan lambs of 2-3 months old with good body condition, consistent parity and similar initial weight were selected and randomly divided into two groups, with 5 replicates in each group and 6 sheep in each replicate. The control group was fed with corn diet, and the test group was fed with 10% wheat flour instead of corn in concentrate. The trial was divided into pre-feeding period of 10 days and post-trial period of 90 days. 【Result】 ①Compared with the control group, the thickness of the stratum corneum in rumen, the length and width of the papilla of reticulum and the thickness of the mucosal layer of abomasum in the experimental group were significantly increased (P<0.05); ②The activity of trypsin in rumen for test group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05); ③Compared with the control group, the content of malondialdehyde in the rumen of the test group was decreased significantly (P<0.05); ④ There was no significant difference in rumen pH between the two groups (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 To sum up, the use of 10% wheat flour instead of corn in concentrate can promote the development of rumen morphology of plateau Tibetan sheep, and enhance rumen digestive enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity.
    Effects of Bioengineering Protein API on Growth Performance and Gut Health of Broilers
    PENG Chunfang, ZHAO Hua, TANG Yuting, ZHAO Wanxin, JIA Gang, LIU Guangmang, TIAN Gang, CAI Jingyi, TANG Jiayong
    2022, 40(5):  676-682.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204123
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (5279KB) ( 8 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to investigate the effects of different levels of bioengineering protein API (Artificial parasin I protein, contains catfish antimicrobial peptide parasin I functional fragment) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal health of broilers. 【Method】 450 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 replicates per group and 9 individuals in each replicate. The control group was fed with the basal diet (BD), and the experimental groups were supplemented with 250, 500, 750, 1 000 mg/kg of API. The trial lasted for 42 d. 【Result】 ①The API supplementation improved the final body weight of chickens and 500 mg/kg API group improved by 79.62 g/bird compared with the control group (P>0.05). ②API supplementation decreased the jejunal crypt depth and increased its chorionic to crypt ratio (P<0.05), while had no impact on the histomorphology of the duodenum and ileum (P>0.05), and exhibited a quadratic linear change tendency (P=0.008). ③The API supplementation tended to increase the α-amylase activity in jejunal mucosa (0.05<P<0.1), and 500 mg/kg API group had the highest α-amylase activity and showed a quadratic linear change in response to levels of API supplementation (P=0.008). ④API supplementation increased the number of total bacteria in the cecum (P<0.01), and 750 mg/kg API supplementation decreased the number of Escherichia coli P<0.05) and increased the number of Lactobacillus. The results were all quadratic linearly correlated with the level of API supplementation (P<0.01). ⑤API supplementation had limited effect on the mRNA abundance of ZO-1, CLDN-1, OCLN and MUC2 in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05); 500 and 750 mg/ kg API supplementation down-regulated the expression abundance of TNF-α in the duodenum (P<0.05); API addition up-regulated the expression abundance of IL-10 in the jejunum (P<0.05) and down-regulated the expression abundance of TNF-α in the jejunum (P<0.05), and the expression abundance of IFN-γP<0.05). 【Conclusion】 API can improve the intestinal morphological barrier and digestive enzyme ability, and then promote intestinal health of broilers. In general, 750 mg/kg API supplementation exhibits better promoting effect on intestinal health of chickens in present study.
    Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Quality and Dry Matter Degradation Rate of Pineapple Residue Silage
    WANG Zhijing, WU Zhengmin, YIN Fuquan, TAN Weijun, GAO Zhenhua, ZHAO Zhihui
    2022, 40(5):  683-689.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203107
    Abstract ( 34 )   PDF (1335KB) ( 57 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was comducted to explore the effects of lactic acid bacteria on the silage quality and dry matter degradation rate of pineapple residue, 【Method】 The lactic acid bacteria were added to pineapple residue with concentration of 0 and 2.5×108,5.0×108,1.0×109 cfu/kg (groups Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ), with 3 repetitions in each group. The samples were taken after silage at room temperature for 4 weeks to determine the fermentation quality and dry matter degradation rate. 【Result】 The results showed that CP (P<0.05), AA and PA in the Lactobacillus addition group were higher than that in the control group; La and tvfa in group Ⅱ and Ⅳ were higher than that in the control group (P>0.05); Ⅱ nitrite (P<0.05) and DM were lower than that in the control group; NH3-N and NH3-N/TN in the Lactobacillus addition group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The addition level of lactic acid bacteria was significantly correlated with DMD (P<0.05); Rumen fermentation time was significantly correlated with DMD (P<0.01). Lactic acid bacteria can improve DMD by reducing DM, P, NH3-N, NH3-N/TN or increasing ash, CA, CP, La, AA and tvfa. 【Conclusion】 In conclusion, lactic acid bacteria are found to be able to improve the quality and dry matter degradation rate of pineapple residue silage, and the value of 2.5×108 cfu/kg additive amount is appropriate.
    Effects of Extracts from Stem and Leaves of Tagetes erecta L. on Production Performance and Immune System of Broilers
    ZENG Yi, SUN Yiqiu, HE Mengxue, YIN Zhongqiong
    2022, 40(5):  690-695.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112089
    Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (2619KB) ( 118 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This experiment aimed to study the effects of extracts from the stem and leaves of Tagetes erecta L. on production performance and immune system of broilers. 【Method】 240 healthy 15-day-old cyan-shank partridge chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group and 20 chickens in each replicate. The control group was fed with basic diet. The low, medium and high dose groups were added with 400, 800 and 1 200 mg/kg extracts from the stem and leaves of Tagetes erecta L. respectively on the basis of basic diet. The experiment lasted for 28 days. 【Result】 Compared with the control group, the average daily gain of broilers in the middle-dose group of extracts from the stem and leaves of Tagetes erecta L. was significantly increased (P<0.01); The high dose group of extracts from stem and leaves of Tagetes erecta L. can significantly improve the immune organ index (P<0.05); Extracts from the stem and leaves of Tagetes erecta L. can significantly up-regulate the contents of IL-10, IgG and IgM in serum of broilers and down-regulate the contents of IL-1β and PGE2 (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 Adding extracts from the stem and leaves of Tagetes erecta L. in the diet can improve the performance and immune performance of broilers.
    Effects of Fermented Feed and Tannin on Egg-Laying Performance, Egg Quality, Serum Immunity and Antioxidant Indexes of Laying Ducks
    REN Shanmao, XU Ting, TAO Yong, YANG Xiaozhi, CAO Yun, YUAN Yan, WANG Jian
    2022, 40(5):  696-706.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202201117
    Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (1381KB) ( 89 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented feed and tannin on the production performance, egg quality, serum immune and antioxidant indexes of laying ducks. 【Method】 A 2×2 two-factor experimental design was performed. Six hundred healthy ducks of Suyou No. 2 during peak laying period with similar body weights at the age of 52 weeks were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups (5 repetitions in each group, 30 per repetition). The control group was fed with basic diet, and the test groups were fed with 5% fermented feed, 2 g/kg tannin, 5% fermented feed + 2 g/kg tannin, respectively. The trial lasted for 28 days. 【Result】 ①Adding 5% of fermented feed significantly increased the feed intake of laying ducks. There was a significant interaction between fermented feed and tannin on the feed intake of laying ducks (P<0.05), and the combined addition of fermented feed and tannin had the highest feed intake (P<0.05). ②In the second week of the experiment, adding 5% fermented feed improved eggshell strength (P<0.05); adding 2 g/kg tannin reduced egg yolk weight (P<0.05); there were significant interactions between fermented feed and tannin on eggshell strength, albumen height, Huff unit and relative eggshell weight (P<0.05). The eggshell strength, albumen height and Huff unit of the compound supplement group were significantly lower than that of the fermented feed group (P<0.05); the eggshell strength and relative eggshell weight of the tannin group were higher than that of the control group (P<0.05); the shell strength of the eggs in the fermented feed group was greater than that of the control group (P<0.05). In the fourth week of the experiment, adding 5% fermented feed increased the eggshell strength of duck eggs (P<0.05), and 2 g/kg tannin increased the relative eggshell weight (P<0.05). ③ Adding 2 g/kg tannin significantly increased serum total protein, urea nitrogen and iron content (P<0.05). Adding 5% fermented diet significantly decreased serum T-SOD content (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 It is concluded that the addition of fermented feed in the diet of laying ducks was beneficial to increase the feed intake of laying ducks and improve the strength of eggshells, but it was not conducive to the improvement of antioxidant capacity. Addition of tannin improved deamination in animals, but the effects on egg quality were related to the duration of action. The combined use of fermented feed and tannin was conductive to increase the feed intake of laying ducks.
    Crop Physiology·Resources and Environment
    Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on Flag Leaf Photosynthesis and Grain Filling Characteristics of Wheat with Different Leaf Types
    HE Yujie, LIU Qiong, WANG Kun, LIAN Jiwen, CAI Luzhou, LIANG Zhenyu, FAN Gaoqiong
    2022, 40(5):  707-713.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203097
    Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (2125KB) ( 80 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The adaptability of wheat with different plant leaf types to light environment in Sichuan basin and the regulation effect of nitrogen application rate. 【Method】 The two-factor split plot design was used in the experiment. The wheat Chuanmai 88 (CM88) with small leaf erect leaf and Shumai 830 (SM830) with large leaf drape leaf were used as the main plots, and two nitrogen treatments (150 and 200 kg/hm2) were used as the split plots to explore the photosynthetic characteristics, grain filling characteristics and yield of wheat under different treatments. 【Result】 There were significant differences in flag leaf area, chlorophyll content, filling rate, spike number per plant and grain-leaf ratio among varieties. The flag leaf chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of Chuanmai 88 were high, the grain-leaf ratio and spike rate per plant were high, and the source-reservoir coordination was good, but the flag leaf was prone to premature senescence; the flag leaf area of Shumai 830 was large, the grain filling rate, 1 000-grain weight and single panicle weight were high, and the individual advantages were obvious, but the panicle capacity was insufficient. There was no significant difference in yield between the two varieties; increasing nitrogen application rate can promote flag leaf area, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate and yield, significantly prolong grain filling duration, especially for Shumai 830 with large panicle and large leaf. 【Conclusion】 The two plant-leaf types of wheat had their own advantages and disadvantages. Chuanmai 88 with small leaf erect leaf had good adaptability to light environment in Sichuan basin. It improved photosynthetic productivity by increasing net photosynthetic rate and delaying flag leaf recession, and achieved high yield by improving population quality with high spike rate and grain-leaf ratio. Shumai 830 with large leaf drape leaf increased spike weight by increasing photosynthetic area and increasing grain filling rate. Increasing nitrogen application rate can effectively improve the photosynthetic performance of flag leaf, compensate for the deficiency of plant leaf type, and significantly prolong grain filling duration and promote grain dry matter accumulation.
    Effects of Organic (Biogas Slurry) Substitution and Reduced Fertilization on Crop Yield and Fertilizer Utilization under Wheat Jade Rotation Mode
    TAO Sina, HE Zhaoliang, ZHANG Mengmeng, CHEN Yuanyuan, DAI Mengxue, ZHANG Haipeng, DING Wenjin
    2022, 40(5):  714-720.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112064
    Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (1572KB) ( 54 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In view of the current situation of excessive application of chemical fertilizer and low utilization rate of biogas slurry resources in Northern Anhui,the effects of partial substitution of biogas slurry and optimized fertilization on the yield and fertilizer utilization rate of winter wheat summer maize were studied. 【Method】 From June 2020 to June 2021,four different fertilization treatments were set up in the North Anhui comprehensive experimental station of Anhui Agricultural University,Yongqiao District,Suzhou City,including no fertilization, conventional fertilization,partial biogas slurry substitution and loss control fertilization. Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different fertilization treatments on the absorption,utilization and yield of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in the winter wheat summer maize rotation planting system. 【Result】 Under the condition of partial substitution of biogas slurry and controlled loss fertilization,it can promote the coordinated development of the three elements of crop yield in the two seasons,and significantly improve the number of ears per plant of winter wheat and the 100 grain weight and row grain number of summer maize. The annual yield of wheat and jade crops in the two seasons in a single year is 17 007.33 kg/hm2,followed by partial substitution of biogas slurry and 16 922.9 kg/hm2. The aboveground nutrient contents of winter wheat and summer maize in Northern Anhui were nitrogen > potassium > phosphorus. Compared with conventional,partial replacement of biogas slurry and loss control fertilization were beneficial to improve the contents of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the aboveground part of the plant. Due to the high content of nitrogen and potassium in biogas slurry and repeated application,the utilization rate of partial replacement of overall nitrogen and potassium by biogas slurry of summer maize is lower than that of conventional fertilization,but it still has a good performance. The utilization rates of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in single year and single season wheat were higher than those in conventional treatment. 【Conclusion】 Considering nutrient absorption and utilization and grain yield,under the experimental conditions,40% reduction of biogas slurry instead of chemical fertilizer and 20% reduction of loss control fertilization in a single year are conducive to the simultaneous improvement of nutrient absorption and yield,which can be used as the optimal model of winter wheat summer maize rotation in Northern Anhui.
    Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Yield and Quality of Legume-Grass Mixtures
    HE Yaling, WEI xiao, ZENG Tairu, ZHOU Jiqiong, LING Yao, YAN Yanhong
    2022, 40(5):  721-727.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205102
    Abstract ( 28 )   PDF (1370KB) ( 77 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To investigate the appropriate nitrogen level of legume-grass mixtures in the hot and humid areas of Sichuan province,and to provide a theoretical basis for the application of nitrogen fertilizer to legume-grass mixed grassland in this region. 【Method】 In the mixtures of alfalfa,white clover,orchardgrass,and tall fescue,3 nitrogen levels:N1 (low nitrogen,150 kg N/hm2 pure nitrogen),N2 (medium nitrogen, 300 kg N/hm2 pure nitrogen),and N3 (high nitrogen,450 kg N/hm2 pure nitrogen) were applied to study the effect of nitrogen level on the biomass yield and nutritional quality. 【Result】 The results showed that hay yield was increased with the increase of nitrogen,N3 had the highest yield (13.80 t/hm2),which was 37.45% and 9.18% higher than those of N1 and N2,respectively (P<0.05). The content of crude protein (CP) and relative feeding value (RFV) was increased with the increase of nitrogen level. The CP of N3 was 3.64%, 8.36%, 10.67% and 12.08% higher than that of N1 in the four times of mowing,respectively(P<0.05),while the content of RFV was the highest (157.35). The average of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was decreased with the increase in nitrogen level,respectively (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 Nitrogen fertilizer can significantly increase the yield of legume-grass mixtures and improve the nutritional quality. Through comprehensive analysis by the membership function method,the 450 kg N/hm2 was the optimal in both yield and nutritional quality.
    Effects of Different Straw Returning on Physicochemical Properties of Yellow Calcareous Soil and Growth of Tomato
    GUO Jiayao, LONG Jian, LIAO Hongkai, LI Juan, TANG Lu
    2022, 40(5):  728-737.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202104053
    Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (5161KB) ( 90 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to improve the soil quality of yellow calcareous soil. 【Method】 Taking the typical yellow calcareous soil in Guizhou province as an example,this study used three kinds of straw returning and two kinds of returning amount,including blank test (CK),anaerobic flooding only (CK1),small amount of rice straw (R1),high amount of rice straw (R2),small amount of corn straw (C1),high amount of corn straw (C2),small amount of miscanthus straw (M1),high amount of Miscanthus straw (M2). The dynamic effects of different straw and straw returning amount on soil pH,organic matter,total nutrients,available nutrients and crop biomass under anaerobic flooding were studied. The soil stoichiometric characteristics of each treatment after anaerobic flooding were also analyzed,and the effects of soil nutrients and nutrients,nutrients and crop biomass were evaluated by correlation analysis. 【Result】 ① Straw under anaerobic flooding treatment could improve the soil nutrient content,and the soil nutrient index content increased gradually with the extension of anaerobic flooding time,except total nitrogen;② Compared with CK,the C/N ratio of each treatment was significantly higher,and the C/P ratio and N/P ratio were significantly lower;③ Through correlation analysis,it was found that pH value and total nitrogen had no significant correlation with other nutrients,organic matter had significant correlation with other nutrient indexes,total potassium and total phosphorus had significant correlation with available potassium and available phosphorus respectively,and organic matter,total potassium,available potassium and available phosphorus had significant correlation with tomato biomass. 【Conclusion】 In general,the effect of corn straw treatment is better than rice and miscanthus straw treatment,and the effect of high-volume straw treatment is better than low-volume straw treatment. The biomass of crops also reflects that the effect of high-volume corn straw treatment is the best.
    Effect of Biochar from Tea Residue on the Mineralization of Soil Organic Carbon in Mingshan Tea Garden
    ZENG Xiong, XIAO Xinjuan, XIA Jianguo, XIAN Shunzhi
    2022, 40(5):  738-745.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202104038
    Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (969KB) ( 129 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper aims reveal the influence of tea residue biochar on the mineralization of organic carbon in tea garden soil. 【Method】 Taking three typical tea garden soils (purple soil,yellow soil and paddy soil) in Mengdingshan,Ya′an,as the research object,this study adopted the tea residue biochar at the five application ratios of 0%,0.5%,1%,2%,and 4% adding to the soil. Through a 112 d indoor cultivation simulation test, the first-order kinetic equation was fitted to analyze the influence of the tea residue biochar on the organic carbon content and mineralization characteristics of the tea garden soil. 【Result】 The results showed that the application of tea residue biochar significantly increased the organic carbon content of the three types of tea garden soils,of which the effect on yellow soil was the most obvious. The application of tea residue biochar significantly increased the organic carbon content of purple soil and paddy soil mineralization rate,cumulative mineralization,mineralization intensity and soil potential mineralizable organic carbon(C0) (P<0.05). The influence of tea residue biochar on the mineralization characteristics of yellow soil is related to the application ratio of biochar. At 0.5% application ratio,the mineralization rate,cumulative mineralization amount and soil potential mineralizable organic carbon content of yellow soil were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the CK treatment,it decreased by 18.75%,21.88% and 22.84%,and the other application ratios showed a significant improvement (P<0.05),but all the biochar treatments could significantly reduce the mineralization intensity of the yellow soil (P<0.05),and the higher the application rate,the greater the decrease,the decrease range is 39.33%~55.65%. 【Conclusion】 The application of tea residue biochar promotes the mineralization of tea garden purple soil and paddy soil,but the application of low amount of tea residue biochar has a certain inhibitory effect on the mineralization and decomposition of soil organic carbon in the yellow soil of tea garden,and the growth of tea residues. The application of material charcoal can significantly weaken the carbon sequestration capacity of tea garden purple soil and paddy soil,and at the same time significantly enhance the soil carbon sequestration capacity of tea garden yellow soil.
    Economic Forests·Forest Protection
    Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of MITE Transposons in Rambutan Genome
    MA Yusheng, ZHANG Wenping, MING Ruiguang
    2022, 40(5):  746-757.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202205115
    Abstract ( 66 )   PDF (32657KB) ( 50 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Identification, classification and evolutionary analysis of the miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements(MITEs)in the rambutan genome were conducted to provide theoretical basis and genomic resources for the study of annotation, evolution and corresponding gene function of the rambutan genome. 【Method】 Bioinformatic tools and genome-wide data of rambutan were used to identify MITEs and systematically analyze its classification, content, evolution, amplification pattern, distribution pattern, insertion preference pattern, and function of adjacent genes. 【Result】 There were 588 complete MITEs in the rambutan genome, including PIF/Harbinger, Mutator, Ac-mMITE, hAT and Ginger superfamilies. Analysis of insertion time showed that several large transposition "burst" events of MITEs occurred between 1-2, 4-5 and 17-18 million years ago(MYA),respectively. The PIF/Harbinger superfamily is dominant in almost every phase, while the Ac-mMITE had the lowest participation in the transposition "burst" events. The insertion position analysis showed that the MITEs were mainly inserted in flanking regions of genes(136 upstream and 137 downstream). 35 MITEs inserted into gene regions,and 2 of 35 inserted in exons. The density distribution analysis showed that the MITEs inserted around the genes dispersely. Insertion preference analysis showed that MITEs insertion rate is the highest within 5kb around the genes, and the closer to the genes, the fewer insertions. Functional enrichment analysis of adjacent genes showed that the inserted genes were mainly enriched in glucosinolates, glucosiso-thiocyanates and S-glucosinolates metabolism and biosynthesis. The genes with MITEs inserted in the 5′-flanking regions were mainly enriched in reproductive and developmental processes, and they were related to the binding of various protein complexes and the activities of some enzymes. 【Conclusion】 These results contributed to the understanding of the basic characteristics and evolutionary pattern of MITEs in the rambutan genome,enhanced genomic annotation of rambutan genome, filled a gap on the research of MITEs in the rambutan genome, and provided a new perspective for the improvement of the host traits.
    Proteomic Characteristics of Male and Female Flower Buds Development in Zanthoxylum planispinum var. dintanensis
    ZHOU Chaobin, ZHANG Xiaoxin, LIU Guorong, GONG Wei, YANG Yongjian, TIAN Zhengyou, YANG Zhiwu
    2022, 40(5):  758-765.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112063
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (7580KB) ( 7 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The Chinese prickly ash fruit (pericarp) is mainly used as a spice and is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. The most flowers of normal Chinese prickly ash are female,occasionally male and/or hermaphroditic flowers. In recent years, a large number of male flowers appeared in Zanthoxylum planispinum var. dintanensis in southwest Guizhou province. Male flowers are not necessary for this species to bear fruits,which has been considered to be related to habitat degradation. Therefore,to study the proteomic characteristics of flower bud development of Z. planispinum var. dintanensis is of great significance for comparing the differences of development between male and female flower buds,and therefore understanding the adaptation of this species to karst habitats in molecular level. 【Method】 The proteomic characteristics of flower buds in inflorescence primordium differentiation phase,male flower and female flower were studied by TMT-tagged quantification technique. 【Result】 A total of 4 742 differentially expressed proteins were detected in flower buds of Z. planispinum var. dintanensis. Compared with flower buds in inflorescence primordium differentiation phase,most of the up-regulation proteins in both female and male flower buds were involved in the same pathway. However,the ribosome pathway was only significantly involved in the regulation of female flower buds development. Compared with female flower buds,the pathways (fatty acid degradation as well as valine,leucine and isoleucine degradation) only occurred in male flower buds,may be beneficial to increase the adaptation of this species to nutrient-poor habitats. Total nine differentially expressed proteins,including Fatty acyl-CoA reductase,Pectate_lyase_3 domain-containing protein and Alpha-galactosidase etc.,were found to be specifically correlated with male flower development,and seven differentially expressed proteins,including Exonuclease domain-containing protein,H15 domain-containing protein,and Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase etc.,were found to be specifically involved in female flower development. 【Conclusion】 In conclusion,male and female flower buds development of Z. planispinum var. dintanensis has significantly different proteomic regulatory mechanisms,and the resources can be saved when large numbers of male flowers appeared,which may increase the plant adaptation to karst habitats.
    Diversity and Function Analysis of Endophytic Bacteria in Phyllostachys edulis Stems at Different Ages
    ZHU Weiyao, LIN Mengting, WU Zhongyi, XU Xiaochen, ZHAO Wenbao, SONG Zhang, ZHANG Qinghua
    2022, 40(5):  766-774.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202112082
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (4561KB) ( 19 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This research is to study the community structure and biological function of endophytic bacteria in the stems of different maturities of Phyllostachys edulis. 【Method】 High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of endophytic bacteria in the stems of 1 to 5-year-old P. edulis were carried out. 【Result】 A total of 21 phyla and 337 genera of endophytic bacteria were detected in all samples. The α-diversity index showed that the diversity of endophytic bacteria of 1-year-old (S1) stem was the lowest, and the Simpson and Shannon indices were only 0.42 and 1.75, respectively; The Simpson index of the endophytic bacteria of 2 to 5-year-old (S2 to S5) stem exceeded 0.93, which indicated the high species diversity. Among them,the Shannon index of endophytic bacteria in S4 stem was the highest (7.01), which was significantly higher than that of other ages. The dominant genus of endophytic bacteria in the stems of S1 P. edulis was Erwinia; Ochrobactrum, Streptococcus and Genus of Rhizobiaceae were the dominant genera in the stems of S2; multiple genera of Paleococcus and Genus of Rhizobiaceae were in the stems of S3; Paleococcus and Clostridium were in the stems of S4; and the genera of Erwinia, Clostridium and Pantoea were dominant in the stems of S5. These results indicated that there were significantly different in endophytic bacterial composition of the stems in different ages. The function prediction results showed that the function of each sample is mainly reflected in carbohydrate degradation.S1 sample has significantly decreased in terms of exogenous biodegradation and metabolism,other amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism, compare with S5 sample. 【Conclusion】 The results analyzed the diversity and variation rules of endophytic bacteria in P. edulis at different ages, which has reference value for analyzing the interaction between P. edulis moso and endophytic bacteria.
    Effects of Three Growth Regulators on the Toxicity of Cyrtotrachelus buqueti and the Activities of Related Enzymes
    WANG Fan, YANG Mei, CHEN Zhangming, YANG Hua, YANG Wei, HUANG Qiong
    2022, 40(5):  775-781.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202202114
    Abstract ( 23 )   PDF (5148KB) ( 37 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper aims to study the insecticidal activities of methoxytebufenazide, flubrillamide and pyriproxyfen on Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larva. 【Method】 Using the feeding method, this study determined the toxicity, temperature effect and influence on related enzyme activity in vivo of different instars of C.buqueti larva. 【Result】 The results showed that the toxicity of the three kinds of insect growth regulators to the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of C.buqueti was the highest, and LC50 was 28.13 mg/L. The toxicity of pyriproxyfen to the 4th instar larva was the highest and LC50 was 111.55 mg/L. At 28 ℃; the toxicity of flubrilluron and pyriproxyfen to the 4th instar larva of C.buqueti was the highest, LC50 was 294.11 mg/L and 71.51 mg/L respectively, but the toxicity of methoxytezide was not regularly affected by temperature. Three kinds of growth regulators had significant effects on acetylcholin esterase, glutathione s-transferase, carboxylesterase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the 4th instar larva,which showed inhibition. The effects of different treatment time on these enzymes were significantly different. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study will be helpful for further understanding of the defense mechanism of C.buqueti against different types of growth regulators and provide theoretical and technical support for the comprehensive control of this insect and the safe production of sympodial bamboo.
    Effects of Gap Modification on Community Structure of Soil Fauna in Pinus massoniana Plantation
    GAO Yarong, JIANG Luo, LUO Manli, LU Qinqin, ZHANG Tinghao, XIAO Jiujin, ZHANG Jian
    2022, 40(5):  782-791.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202204122
    Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (1977KB) ( 59 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper aims to investigate the changes of soil fauna community structure in a pure Pinus massoniana forest after forest gap transformation and Cinnamomum camphora replanting. 【Method】 This study analyzed three gaps of different area sizes formed through artificial logging(small gap:100-225 m2, medium gap :625-900 m2, large gap:1 225-1 600 m2), compared with pure stand of Pinus massoniana, the dry/wet born from funnel of small and medium-sized soil animals and explored the characteristics of soil animal community. 【Result】 The results showed that a total of 2 518 soil faunal belonging to 3 phyla, 12 classes and 30 orders were collected, the dominant group of soil fauna was Nematode, accounting for 50.37 % of the total density. The average density of soil fauna in large gaps was the highest, and the number of soil fauna in medium gaps was the highest. The vertical distribution of soil animal community showed obvious characteristics of surface aggregation. The diversity index and evenness index of soil fauna in pure forest were the highest, while the dominance index was the lowest. The average density of soil fauna was mainly omnivorous, and the number of soil fauna varied from 42.67% to 65.72%. The number of functional groups of soil animals was saprophytic & GT. Plant diets & gt; Bacteria feeding & gt; predatory & gt; Omnivorous. 【Conclusion】 The change of soil fauna community under the forest are the results from forest gap reconstruction, the development of soil fauna community is promoted by medium gap area (625-900 m2).
    Agricultural Economy
    Impact Mechanism and Heterogeneity of Rural Labor Migration on Grain Production
    LI Gang
    2022, 40(5):  792-798.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203118
    Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (1320KB) ( 45 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims to evaluate research the influence of rural labor migration on grain production and reveal the internal mechanism of rural labor transfer promoting grain production. 【Method】 Based on the provincial panel data from 1999 to 2020, the dynamic panel model, impact mechanism model and hierarchical regression model were constructed to conduct empirical analysis. 【Result】 ①There is surplus supply of rural labor force in China, and the transfer of rural labor force has a positive impact on grain production. ②The transfer of rural labor force increases the wage income of peasant households and the income of rural residents. The increase of rural residents' income increases the input of agricultural machinery and fertilizer and other agricultural capital, thus improving the grain output.③At present, the use of chemical fertilizer has a significant impact on grain production, while the positive impact of agricultural machinery has yet to be explored. ④Land input is more important for food production in productive provinces than in non-productive provinces. 【Conclusion】 While paying attention to grain production, conditions should be created to promote the transfer of rural labor.
    Why Farmers are Unwilling to Participate in Land Transfer under the Background of Part-Time Farming
    XU Guanqing, CUI Zhanfeng
    2022, 40(5):  799-804.  doi:10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202203119
    Abstract ( 40 )   PDF (1312KB) ( 24 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This paper aims to explore the impact of part-time farming on land transfer. 【Method】 Based on the data of the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) in 2018 and on the basis of logit regression analysis, the propensity score matching method (PSM) was further used to empirically analyze the impact of the degree and type of part-time farming on land inflow and outflow. 【Result】 ①The increase of part-time farming has a significant inhibition effect on land inflow, but it has an inverted U-shaped relationship with land outflow.②Different part-time farmers show obvious heterogeneity when participating in land transfer, only the land inflow tendency of I part-time farmers and the land outflow tendency of II part-time farmers are more significant. 【Conclusion】 When guiding farmers to participate in land transfer, the government should formulate corresponding land transfer policies according to the distribution of local part-time types.