四川农业大学学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 558-564.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202108081

• 作物营养 • 上一篇    下一篇

施氮量对成都平原直播油菜氮肥利用率和农田氮素表观平衡的影响

张芳芳1#, 胡跃1#, 刘士山1, 杨云飞1, 严红梅1, 吴永成1,2,3,*   

  1. 1.四川农业大学农学院,成都 611130;
    2.农业农村部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,成都 611130;
    3.作物生理生态及栽培四川省重点实验室,成都 611130
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-29 出版日期:2022-08-28 发布日期:2022-08-29
  • 通讯作者: *吴永成,教授,博士,主要从事作物栽培与农业生态研究,E-mail:ycwu2002@163.com。
  • 作者简介:张芳芳,硕士研究生;胡跃,博士研究生,主要从事油菜高产高效栽培研究,E-mail:960012140@qq.com。#为并列第一作者。
  • 基金资助:
    四川省农作物育种攻关栽培课题(2016NYZ0051); 国家现代农业产业技术体系四川油菜创新团队(sccxtd-2021-03)

Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Apparent Nitrogen Balance of Direct Seeding Rapeseed in Chengdu Plain of Sichuan Province

ZHANG Fangfang1#, HU Yue1#, LIU Shishan1, YANG Yunfei1, YAN Hongmei1, WU Yongcheng1,2,3,**   

  1. 1. College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-Physiology and Farming System in Southwest , Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chengdu 611130, China;
    3. Crop Eco-physiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, China
  • Received:2021-08-29 Online:2022-08-28 Published:2022-08-29

摘要: 【目的】 探讨四川省成都平原稻田直播油菜高产、氮肥高效利用的氮肥施用量。【方法】 连续两年(2015—2017)在四川省广汉市西高镇进行大田定位试验,设置5个不同施氮量处理(0、135、180、225、270 kg N/hm2),测定油菜成熟期0~20 cm土层土壤无机氮含量、籽粒产量和植株氮素吸收量,分析不同施氮量对直播油菜产量、氮肥利用率和农田氮素表观平衡的影响。【结果】 与不施氮(N0)处理相比,增施氮肥能显著增加油菜株高、分枝部位、一次分枝数、单株角果数和籽粒产量,但株高、分枝部位和籽粒产量在4个施氮处理(135、180、225、270 kg N/hm2)之间无显著差异。氮肥农学利用率和氮肥偏生产力均随施氮量增加而降低,且各施氮量处理间差异显著。当施氮量为135~180 kg N/hm2时,氮输出总量与氮输入总量差异不大,氮素表观损失较低,氮素盈余较低,且氮素盈余以土壤无机氮残留为主。由于连续两年相同施氮处理的累积效应,第2年的氮素表观损失和氮素盈余均高于第1年相同施氮处理。随施氮量增加,氮肥表观利用率和氮肥表观残留率均呈先上升后下降的趋势。氮肥表观损失率随着施氮量的增加总体上表现为下降趋势。【结论】 综合考虑油菜籽粒产量、氮肥高效利用和农田氮素表观平衡等,成都平原稻田直播油菜推荐施氮量为180 kg N/hm2

关键词: 直播油菜, 施氮量, 产量, 氮肥利用率, 氮素平衡

Abstract: 【Objective】 This study was conducted to explore a reasonable nitrogen (N) application rates for high yield and high use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer of direct seeding rapeseed in Chengdu plain of Sichuan province. 【Method】 Field experiment, consisting of five different N application rates (0, 135, 180, 225, 270 kg N/hm2) was conducted on Xigao town, Guanghan county of Sichuan province for two consecutive years (2015—2017). The content of soil inorganic N of 0-20 cm topsoil, seed yield and plant N absorption were determined at the maturity stage of rapeseed to analyze the effects of N application rates on yield, N use efficiency and apparent N balance of direct seeding rapeseed. 【Result】 Compared with N0 treatment, plant height, branch position, number of primary branches, number of pods per plant and grain yield of adding N fertilizer treatment were improved significantly in rapeseed. However, there was no significant difference in plant height, branching position and grain yield among four fertilizer treatments (135, 180, 225, 270 kg N/hm2). N agronomic efficiency and N partial productivity decreased with the increase in N application, and there were significant differences among different treatments. Under the N application rates(135-180 kg N/hm2) , there was low apparent N loss, low N surplus and little difference between total amount of N output and total amount of N input, with the N surplus was mainly soil inorganic N residues. The apparent N loss and N surplus in the second year were higher than that in the first year under the same N application treatment due to accumulative effect. There was a trend of first increase and then decrease in N apparent efficiency and N apparent residual rate with the increase of N application rates. Overall, the apparent N losses decreased with the increase of N rates. 【Conclusion】 Considering the rapeseed yield, efficient utilization of N fertilizer, and apparent balance of farmland N, the reasonable N application rate of direct seeding rapeseed was 180 kg N/hm2 in Chengdu plain of Sichuan pProvince.

Key words: direct-seeding rapeseed, nitrogen application rate, yield, nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, nitrogen balance

中图分类号: 

  • S565.4