四川农业大学学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 610-618.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.202107030

• 生物与环境·食品工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

核桃及其机械破壳后主要组分悬浮速度理论计算与试验研究

朱占江1,2, 康敏2,*, 刘奎1, 马文强1, 沈晓贺1   

  1. 1.新疆农业科学院农业机械化研究所,乌鲁木齐 830091;
    2.南京农业大学工学院,南京 210031
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-30 出版日期:2022-08-28 发布日期:2022-08-29
  • 通讯作者: *康敏,博士,博士生导师,教授,主要从事特种加工技术研究,E-mail:kangmin@njau.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:朱占江,硕士,副研究员,主要从事农产品加工技术及装备研究,E-mail:807305760@qq.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51865059); 新疆维吾尔自治区科技援疆计划项目(2020E02114); 乌鲁木齐市科学技术计划项目(G161010002)

Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Study on Suspension Velocity of Walnut and Its Main Components after Mechanical Shell Cracking

ZHU Zhanjiang1,2, KANG Min2,*, LIU Kui1, MA Wenqiang1, SHEN Xiaohe1   

  1. 1. Institute of Agricultural Mechanization Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science,Urumqi 830091,China;
    2. Engineering College,Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu 210031,China
  • Received:2021-06-30 Online:2022-08-28 Published:2022-08-29

摘要: 【目的】 研究核桃及其机械破壳后主要组分壳、仁和分心木颗粒悬浮速度,为核桃清选装置、核桃壳仁气流分离装置设计提供基础。【方法】 测定核桃各物料基本物理参数,依据物料几何形状选取合适的变形系数计算悬浮速度,采用悬浮速度试验台测定各物料单颗粒悬浮速度、颗粒群悬浮速度和分离风速。【结果】 试验测得原果核桃、空瘪核桃悬浮速度区间分别为17.37~21.15、11.65~13.73 m/s;1/2、1/4、1/8和1/16各等级核桃仁悬浮速度区间分别为11.71~13.16、11.51~12.72、10.68~11.97和9.21~11.11 m/s,各等级核桃壳悬浮速度区间分别为6.33~9.33、6.36~8.29、5.50~7.64和5.19~6.85 m/s,分心木悬浮速度区间为1.76~4.55 m/s。【结论】 理论计算和试验均可作为获取核桃各物料悬浮速度的重要方法;从获得的悬浮速度数据看,核桃各物料适宜气力分选,不同等级壳仁分离难易度不同;颗粒群悬浮速度与颗粒数量正相关,呈三次拟合函数关系;各物料分离风速为对应轻物料空瘪核桃或核桃壳悬浮速度均值的1.1~1.2倍。

关键词: 核桃, 壳仁, 悬浮速度, 清选, 气流分离

Abstract: 【Objective】 In order to provide a basis for the design of walnut cleaning device and walnut shell-kernel air separation device,the suspension velocity of walnut and its main components shell,kernel and distractor after mechanical shell cracking was studied. 【Method】 The basic physical parameters of each component after mechanical cracking of walnut shell were measured,and the suspension velocity was calculated by selecting the appropriate deformation coefficient according to the material geometry.The single particle suspension velocity, particle group suspension velocity and separation wind speed of each material were measured by the material suspension velocity test bench. 【Result】 The suspension velocity of each material was distributed in a certain range,and the suspension velocity ranges of original walnut and hollow walnut were 17.37-21.15,11.65-13.73 m/s respectively;The suspension speed ranges of 1/2,1/4,1/8 and 1/16 grades of walnut kernel were 11.71-13.16,11.51-12.72,10.68-11.97 and 9.21-11.11 m/s respectively,and the suspension speed ranges of four grades of walnut shell were 6.33-9.33,6.36-8.29,5.50-7.64 and 5.19-6.85 m/s respectively,and the suspension speed range of distractor was 1.76-4.55 m/s. 【Conclusion】 Theoretical calculation and experiment could be used as important methods to obtain the suspension velocity of walnut materials. From the suspension velocity data obtained,walnut materials were suitable for pneumatic separation, and the separation difficulty of different grades of shell and kernel was different. The suspension velocity of particle group was positively correlated with the number of particles,which was a cubic fitting function;The separation wind speed of each material was 1.1-1.2 times of the average suspension speed of hollow walnut or walnut shell of corresponding light material.

Key words: walnut, shell kernel, suspension velocity, cleaning, air separation

中图分类号: 

  • S226.5