四川农业大学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (6): 820-826.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2021.06.016

• 资源环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

高寒区蔓竹群落特征及其水文效应

向晓华1,2, 马建刚1,*   

  1. 1.西南林业大学生态与环境学院,昆明 650224;
    2.四川水利职业技术学院,成都 611231
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-08 出版日期:2021-12-30 发布日期:2021-12-31
  • 通讯作者: *马建刚,硕士,副教授,主要从事水土流失防治、石漠化治理研究,E-mail:12578734@qq.com。
  • 作者简介:向晓华,硕士,讲师,主要从事水土流失防治研究,E-mail:776090631@qq.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然基金地区项目(42067011); 云南省教育厅科学研究基金项目(2018JS342); 云南省高校土壤侵蚀与控制重点实验室项目(云教科(2016)37号)

Study on Characteristics of Bashania qiaojiaensis Community and Its Hydrological Effect in Alpine Region

XIANG Xiaohua1,2, MA Jiangang1,*   

  1. 1. College of Ecology and Environment,Southwest Forestry University,Kunming 650224,China;
    2. Sichuan Water Conservancy Vocational College,Chengdu 611230,China
  • Received:2021-09-08 Online:2021-12-30 Published:2021-12-31

摘要: 【目的】为高寒地区的水土保持选择提供生态修复植物。【方法】以云南省昭通市巧家县药山自然保护区高寒区不同海拔(3 400 m和3 800 m)自然分布的蔓竹(Bashania qiaojiaensis Yi et J.Y.Shi) 群落为对象,采用野外现场调查和室内实验的方法,研究其生物量、枯落物和土壤水文特征。【结果】①蔓竹在高寒区表现为矮草甸状的纯竹林群落,且生长良好,密度高达273~490株/m2,总生物量为2 715.53~3 294.55 g/m2,远高于其他灌草群落;②枯落物储量为6.35~7.21 t/hm2、最大持水量19.94~26.13 t/hm2,失水过程也较缓慢,表现出了较高的持水能力;③土壤总孔隙度与容重都在10~20 cm处最低,分别为56.33%~65.26%、0.62~0.66 g/cm3,饱和持水量与毛管持水量却较大,分别为98.18%~99.73%、75.48%~75.56%,最小稳渗速率仅为2.33 mm/min,表现出了良好的通气性和持水性。【结论】蔓竹生物量和持水保水能力优于高寒区多数灌草植物,表明其在湿冷的高寒地区具有良好的应用潜力。

关键词: 蔓竹, 群落特征, 枯落物持水性, 土壤水文效益

Abstract: 【Objective】 Plant selection is important to ecological restoration of soil and water conservation in alpine regions. 【Method】 Our study objects are Bashania qiaojiaensis community in Yaoshan nature reserve of Qiaojia county, Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province (a.s.l 3 400 m and 3 800 m). To analyze the com-munity characteristics, biomass, litter and soil water-holding capacity of Bashania qiaojiaensis, the quadrat survey and domestic immersion were used. 【Result】 ①Bashania qiaojiaensis grew well as the dominant species in alpine region, the quadrat density was 273~490 plants/m2, and the total biomass were 2 715.53~3 294.55 g/m2, these results were higher than that of other shrub and grass communities. ②The litter weight was 6.35~7.21 t/hm2, the water-holding capacity was19.94~26.13 t/hm2, that indicated high water holding capacity. ③The total porosity and bulk density were 56.33%~65.26% and 0.62~0.66 g/cm3 at 10~20 cm soil layer respectively. The saturation moisture capacity and capillary moisture capacity were 98.18%~99.73% and 75.48%~75.56%,respectively. The minimum soil stable infiltrating rate was only 2.33 mm/min. It showed good air permeability and water holding capacity. 【Conclusion】 The biomass and water holding capacity of Bashania qiaojiaensis were higher than most of the shrub and grass plants in alpine region, which indicated it had good application potential in cold and humid areas.

Key words: Bashania qiaojiaensis Yi et J. Y. Shi, community characteristics, water-holding capacity of litter, soil hydrological effect

中图分类号: 

  • S715.3