四川农业大学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (5): 674-680.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2021.05.016

• 资源与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同水生植物种植模式对富营养化水体的净化效果研究

曾明颖1, 顾凡强1, 王仁睿2,*   

  1. 1.西南科技大学土木工程与建筑学院,四川 绵阳 621010;
    2.西南科技大学生命科学与工程学院,四川 绵阳 621010
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-15 出版日期:2021-10-30 发布日期:2021-11-01
  • 通讯作者: *王仁睿,博士,讲师,主要从事园艺植物种质资源保存和应用研究,E-mail:renruiwang@swust.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:曾明颖,副教授,主要从事园林景观设计研究,E-mail:19427817@qq.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然基金委青年科学基金项目(51808463)

Study on Purification Effect of Different Aquatic Plant Configuration Modes on Eutrophic Water

ZENG Mingying1, GU Fanqiang1, WANG Renrui2,*   

  1. 1. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture,Southwest University of Science and Technology,Mianyang 621010,Sichuan,China;
    2. School of Life Science and Engineering,Southwest University of Science and Technology,Mianyang 621010,Sichuan,China
  • Received:2021-05-15 Online:2021-10-30 Published:2021-11-01

摘要: 【目的】 分析不同水生植物种植模式对富营养化水体的净化效果,为选用适宜的水生植物治理污水提供理论依据。【方法】 选出6种水生植物(沉水植物、浮水植物和挺水植物各2种),分别以单种种植、2种混种和3种混种的种植模式进行水培试验,每5天对总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、化学需氧量(COD)和氨氮4个指标进行检测,试验周期为25 d,比较水生植物不同种植模式下富营养化水体的净化情况。【结果】 随着时间的增加,不同种植模式的水生植物对富营养化水体中的TN、TP、COD和氨氮的去除率均呈递增趋势;25 d时,对水体的净化效果表现为3种混种优于两种混种,两种混种优于单种种植;对TN去除效果最好的有菖蒲+凤眼莲+狐尾藻,菖蒲+大薸+狐尾藻,去除率分别是97.3%和96.0%;对TP的去除效果最好的有再力花+大薸+伊乐藻、菖蒲+大薸+伊乐藻、菖蒲+凤眼莲+狐尾藻,去除率分别是97.9%、97.5%和97.5%;对COD去除效果最好的有菖蒲+凤眼莲+狐尾藻、再力花、菖蒲、大薸、菖蒲+凤眼莲+伊乐藻,去除率分别是57.5%、56.9%、55.7%、53.9%和53.5%;对氨氮去除效果最好的是再力花+大薸+伊乐藻,去除率是62.2%。【结论】 综合各项指标,菖蒲+凤眼莲+狐尾藻这种“挺水+浮水+沉水”的混合种植方式对富营养化水体改善效果最佳。城市滨水植物的配置应首先考虑生态效益最大化,其次是美学效果。研究对城市滨水植物景观配置工作具有重要的指导作用。

关键词: 水生植物, 种植模式, 富营养水体, 水质净化

Abstract: 【Objective】 To provide a theoretical basis for selection of optimal aquatic plants for eutrophic water purification, different aquatic plant configuration modes were analyzed. 【Method】 Six aquatic plants were selected (two submerged plants, two floating plants and two emergent plants) for single plant mode, two mixed plant mode and three mixed plant mode in the present study. Total nitrogen (TN), total phosphor (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen were detected every five days for twenty-five days in total. Purification effect of different aquatic plant configuration modes on eutrophic water was compared. 【Result】 Removal rates of TN, TP, COD and ammonia nitrogen in eutrophication water increased with time increased. On the twenty-fifth day, the purification effect on eutrophic water was three mixed plants mode better than two mixed plants, two mixed plants better than single plant. The optimal treatments for TN elimination were Acorus calamus+Eichhornia crassipes+Myriophyllum verticillatum and Acorus calamus+Pistia stratiotes+Myriophyllum verticillatum, with 97.3% and 96.0% of TN removal rate respectively. The optimal treatments for TP elimination were Thalia dealbata+Pistia stratiotes+Elodea nuttallii, Acorus calamus+Pistia stratiotes+Elodea nuttallii and Acorus calamus+Eichhornia crassipes+Myriophyllum verticillatum, with 97.9%、97.5% and 97.5% of TP removal rate respectively. The optimal treatments for COD elimination were Acorus calamus+Eichhornia crassipes+Myriophyllum verticillatum, Thalia dealbata, Acorus calamus, Pistia stratiotes, Acorus calamus+Eichhornia crassipes+Elodea nuttallii, with57.5%、56.9%、55.7%、53.9% and 53.5% of COD removal rate respectively. The optimal treatments for ammonia nitrogen elimination was Thalia dealbata+Pistia stratiotes+Elodea nuttallii, with 62.2% of ammonia nitrogen removal rate. 【Conclusion】 Based on four indicators, the optimal aquatic plant configuration mode for eutrophic water purification was Acorus calamus+Eichhornia crassipes+Myriophyllum verticillatum. It should consider maximization of ecological benefits first in urban waterfront landscape design, followed by aesthetic effects. This study will provide important guidance for urban waterfront landscape design.

Key words: aquatic plants, configuration mode, eutrophic water, water purification

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