四川农业大学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (3): 286-296.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2021.03.003

所属专题: 水稻研究专题

• 特别策划:水稻研究专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

氮肥缓速配施对两种机插稻物质生产特性的影响

吕腾飞1,2, 谌洁1, 代邹2, 杨志远1, 郑传刚2, 马均1,*   

  1. 1.四川农业大学水稻研究所/作物生理生态及栽培四川省重点实验室,成都 611130;
    2.西昌学院农业科学学院,四川 西昌 615000
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-21 出版日期:2021-06-28 发布日期:2021-07-05
  • 通讯作者: *马均,教授,博士,博士生导师,主要从事水稻高产优质栽培技术研究,E-mail:majunp2002@163.com。
  • 作者简介:吕腾飞,博士,主要从事水稻高产优质栽培技术研究,E-mail:1018914967@qq.com。
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目院国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0301701; 2017YFD0301706; 2018YFD0301202)

Effect of Combined Application of Slow Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Urea on Dry Matter Production Characteristics in Two Mechanical Transplanted Rice

LYU Tengfei1,2, SHEN Jie1, DAI Zou2, YANG Zhiyuan1, ZHENG Chuangang2, MA Jun1,*   

  1. 1. Rice Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University/Crop Ecophysiology and Culivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, China;
    2. College of AgriculturalScience, Xichang University, Xichang 615000,Sichuan, China
  • Received:2021-03-21 Online:2021-06-28 Published:2021-07-05

摘要: 【目的】为探索钵苗机插杂交籼稻在西南稻区高产的物质生产及产量特性。【方法】在2016-2017年,以杂交籼稻F优498为试验材料,采用两因素裂区设计,主区为2种机插方式:钵苗机插和毯苗机插;副区为4种氮肥管理方式:不施氮肥,缓释肥一次基施,缓释肥:尿素=7:3一次基施(缓速基施)和缓释肥:尿素=7:3,其中缓释肥当作基肥,尿素当作促花肥施用(缓基速追);总施氮量均为150 k/hm2,随机排列,重复3次,研究杂交籼稻高产的物质生产特性、产量及其构成因素。【结果】与毯苗机插相比,钵苗机插在拔节期、抽穗期和成熟期地.上部干物质积累量分别提高了11.98%、13.26%和 4.34%,抽穗期光合有效叶面积、高效叶面积和高效叶面积率以及抽穗后7d的剑叶净光合速率分别提高了8.21%、14.13%、5.20%和12.39% ,抽穗~成熟的茎叶干物质转运量和穗部干物质增加量,以及茎叶干物质转运率、干物质转运对穗部的贡献率、茎鞘物质转化率和茎叶表观输出率也均显著提高。相比缓释肥一次基施,缓基速追有效提升了机插杂交稻抽穗期光合有效面积和高效叶面积,并能够显著提高抽穗期和成熟期地上部及地上部各器官的干物质积累量以及抽穗~成熟阶段叶片干物质转运量和转运率。【结论】钵苗机插和氮肥缓基速追能够提高杂交籼稻拔节~抽穗和抽穗~成熟的干物质积累、增大抽.穗后光合面积提高光合物质生产和运转能力,进而使稻谷产量分别比毯苗机插和缓释肥一次基施提高了8.91%和4.67%。

关键词: 杂交籼稻, 钵苗, 机插, 缓速配施, 物质生产, 产量

Abstract: 【Objective】 Machine transplanting and the application of slow-release nitrogen (N) fertilizer (SRNF) have played vital roles in the modernization of rice production. We aimed to determine the effects of potted-seedling transplanting- a new machine-transplanting method-and SRNF on dry matter production and yield characteristics of the machine-transplantation indica hybrid rice in the Southwest rice region. 【Method】 A 2-year split-plot experiment (2016-2017) was conducted in Meishan, Sichuan province, China,using two machine- transplanting methods (potted-seedling and blanket- seedling) and four N treatments [Zero nitrogen control; Slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (SRNF) 150 kg/hm2 as base; SRNF 105 kg/hm2+Urea (U) 45 kg/hm2 as base; SRNF 105 kg/hm2 as base+U 45 kg/hm2 as panicle (SBUP)]. 【Result】 Compared with the blanket, the dry matter accumulation of the potted increased by 11.98% ,13.26% and 4.34% at jointing, heading and maturity,respectively; its photosynthetic effective leaf area, high- effctive leaf area and high-effective leaf area rate at heading, and the net photosynthetic rate of the flag leaves at 7 days after heading increased by 8.21%,14.13%, 5.20% and 12.39%, respectively. More-over, the dry matter transportation of stems and leaves, and the dry matter accumulation of panicles from heading to maturity,dry matter transportation efficiency of stems and leaves, the contribution rate of dry matter transportation, the conversion rate of dry matter of stem-sheath,apparent output rate of stems and leaves,the potted were significantly higher than that of the blanket. Compared with 100% SRNF as base, 70% SRNF+30% urea as base significantly decreased the dry matter accumulation at heading and maturity, and the dry matter accumulation of panicles from heading to maturity, as well as the photosynthetic indices above-mentioned. However, 70% SRNF as base+30% urea as panicle effectively improved the photosyn-thetic effective leaf area and high-effective leaf area at heading on machine transplanting hybrid rice, and it could significantly improve the dry matter accumulation at heading and maturity, as well as the dry matter transportation and rate of leaves from heading to maturity. 【Conclusion】 Compared with the blanket-seedling and 100% SRNF as base, the potted-seedling machine-transplanted method and SBUP could be improve the dry matter accumulation from elongation to heading and heading to maturity, the photosynthetic area after heading,and dry matter production and translocation,form a high- quality and high-efficient population of indica hybrid rice, then the grain yield increased by 8.91% and 4.67%,respectively.

Key words: hybrid indica rice, potted-seedling, machine-transplanted, slow and rapid nitrogen fertilizer combined application, dry matter production, yield

中图分类号: 

  • S511