四川农业大学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (03): 301-307.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2019.03.004

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密度与行距配置对川中丘区玉米物质积累及产量的影响

陈伟1, 李强2, 刘晓林1, 吴雅薇1, 金容1, 袁继超1, 孔凡磊1,*   

  1. 1.四川农业大学农学院/农业部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,成都 611130;
    2.重庆经济植物生物技术重点实验室/重庆市特种植物协调创新中心/重庆文理学院特色植物研究院,重庆 402160
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-16 出版日期:2019-06-28 发布日期:2021-01-29
  • 作者简介:陈伟,硕士研究生。*责任作者:孔凡磊,副教授,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为农作制度与玉米高产优质高效栽培理论与技术研究, E-mail:kflstar@163.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300307、2016YFD0300209 ); 公益性行业科研专项( 20150312705)

Effects of Density and Row Spacing on Maize Accumulation and Yield in Hilly Area of Sichuan

CHEN Wei1, LI Qiang2, LIU Xiaolin1, WU Yawei1, JIN Rong1, YUAN Jichao1, KONG Fanlei1,*   

  1. 1. College of Agronomy,Sichuan Agricultural University / Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China,Ministry of Agriculture,Chengdu 611130,China;
    2. Chongqing Key Laboratory of Economic Plant Biotechnology,Collaborative Innovation Center of Special Plant Industry in Chongqing,Institute of Special Plants, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences,Chongqing 402160,China
  • Received:2018-07-16 Online:2019-06-28 Published:2021-01-29

摘要: 【目的】为探究密度与行距配置对川中丘区玉米物质积累、转运和分配及产量的影响。【方法】采用两因素随机区组试验设计,设置2个密度(D1:4.5×104 株/hm2、D2:6.75×104 株/hm2)和5个行距配置方式(100、80、60 cm等行距和150 cm+50 cm、110 cm+50 cm宽窄行),研究密度与行距配置对玉米物质生产及产量形成的影响。【结果】密度和行距配置对玉米物质积累和产量影响的互作效应显著。低密度显著提高了玉米花前、花后物质转运量、穗粒数、单株干物质积累量和单株籽粒产量,与D2相比,D1分别提高了24.77%、22.73%、25.13%、26.72%和23.21%,且等行距玉米单株干物质积累量、花前干物质转运量和花后干物质积累量及产量均显著高于宽窄行,玉米产量以60 cm等行距配置产量最高。高密度显著提高了玉米群体物质积累量和产量,与D1相比,D2成熟期群体干物质积累量与产量平均提高18.40%和21.74%,且宽窄行显著提高了花后物质积累量和玉米产量,玉米产量以110 cm+50 cm的宽窄行配置产量最高。【结论】川中丘区4.5×104 株/hm2密度下采用等行距配置可改善玉米植株个体物质积累分配,进而促进单株干物质生产提高产量,而6.75×104 株/hm2密度下宽窄行配置(110 cm+50 cm)能有效缓解密植个体竞争,提高玉米花后干物质积累,进而获得高产。

关键词: 玉米, 种植密度, 行距配置, 物质积累分配, 产量

Abstract: 【Objective】 In order to explore the effects of density and row spacing on dry matter accumulation, transportation and distribution and yield of Maize in the Middle Sichuan hilly region. 【Method】 Two-factor randomized block design was used to set up two densities (D1:4.5×104 plants/hm2, D2:6.75×104 plants/hm2) and five row spacing arrangements (100、80、60 cm, and other rows and 150 cm+50 cm, 110 cm+50 cm wide and narrow lines) to study the effects of density and row spacing on dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution of maize and yield formation. 【Result】 The results showed that the effects of density and row spacing on the interaction between maize material accumulation and yield were significant. Low density significantly increased the amount of material transport before flowering, after flowering, grain number per spike, dry matter accumulation per plant, and grain yield per plant. Compared with D2 density, D1 density increased by 24.77%, 22.73%, 25.13%, 26.72% and 23.21% respectively, dry matter accumulation, dry matter transport before and after flowering, yield were all significantly higher in row-spaced maize than in wide-narrow rows. Compare with other rows, maize yield was highest in 60 cm. meanwhile, the high density significantly increased the population accumulation and yield of the maize population. Compared with D1 treatment, dry matter accumulation and yield at the maturity stage of D2 density increased by 18.40% and 21.74% respectively, wide-narrow spacing treatment significantly increased the amount of material accumulation after flowering and yield, and corn yield was the highest with the wide row configuration of 110 cm+50 cm. 【Conclusion】 The equal spacing arrangement under the density of 4.5×104 plants/hm2 in the middle Sichuan hilly region could improve the individual material accumulation and distribution characteristics of the maize plant, thereby promoting the dry matter production per plant and increasing the yield, meanwhile, at the density of 6.75×104 plants/hm2, the row configuration (110 cm+50 cm) could effectively alleviate the competition of densely planted individuals, increase the dry matter accumulation after maize flowering, and then obtain high yield.

Key words: maize, planting density, row spacing, material accumulation and distribution, yield

中图分类号: 

  • S513