四川农业大学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (01): 70-77.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2019.01.011

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短期饲喂两种类型纤维对生长猪后肠菌群结构和主要代谢产物的影响

张玲, 李华, 赵瑶, 陈代文, 余冰, 何军, 虞洁, 罗钧秋, 毛湘冰, 郑萍, 黄志清, 罗玉衡*   

  1. 四川农业大学动物营养研究所/教育部动物抗病营养重点实验室, 成都 611130
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-16 出版日期:2019-02-28 发布日期:2021-01-29
  • 作者简介:张玲,硕士。*责任作者:罗玉衡,副研究员,主要从事单胃动物肠道微生态营养研究,E-mail:luoluo212@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31301987)

The Short-Term Feeding of Two Different Dietary Fibers Affects the Microbial Community and Main Metabolites in the Hindgut of Growing Pigs

ZHANG Ling, LI Hua, ZHAO Yao, CHEN Daiwen, YU Bing, HE Jun, YU Jie, LUO Junqiu, MAO Xiangbing, ZHENG Ping, HUANG Zhiqing, LUO Yuheng*   

  1. Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education/Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
  • Received:2018-07-16 Online:2019-02-28 Published:2021-01-29

摘要: 【目的】旨在探索两种典型可溶(SDF)和不可溶性日粮纤维(IDF)分别对生长猪生产性能、肠道微生物区系及其代谢产物的影响,为猪生产上合理选择不同种类的纤维源提供参考。【方法】选取16头健康、体况一致的(40.38±1.19) kg杜洛克×长白×大约克去势公猪,随机分为SDF组和IDF组2个处理,SDF组饲粮中添加7.14%燕麦β-葡聚糖(纯度≥70%),IDF组饲粮中添加5.05% MCC(纯度≥99%)。试验期21 d,记录生长情况,收集直肠内容物进行菌群结构及主要代谢产物(短链脂肪酸,SCFAs)分析。【结果】①SDF组和IDF组试猪末重、ADG和ADFI差异均不显著(P>0.05);与IDF组相比,SDF组F/G有降低趋势(0.05<P<0.1);②DGGE分析表明,两处理组第1天和第21天样品分别聚为两簇;SDF组猪直肠内容物细菌Shannon指数降低,IDF组则呈相反变化;③Real-time PCR分析结果表明,饲喂含SDF饲粮21 d后,猪只直肠内容物中总菌数量极显著降低(P<0.01);Firmicutes门和Lactobacillus属细菌数量显著降低(P<0.05);Escherichia coli数量极显著增加(P<0.01);硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)和Bifidobacterium数量有上升趋势(0.05<P<0.1);产甲烷菌数量有降低趋势(0.05<P<0.1)。饲喂含IDF饲粮猪只直肠内容物中Firmicutes门细菌数量极显著降低(P<0.01),Prevotella属和Escherichia coli数显著升高(P<0.05);④试验结束时SDF组试猪直肠内容物中乙酸含量较试验初显著降低(P<0.05),丙酸和总SCFAs含量呈下降趋势(0.05<P<0.1)。IDF组试猪直肠内容物中乙酸、丙酸、丁酸含量及乙丙比较试验初显著降低(P<0.05),总SCFAs含量较试验初期极显著降低(P<0.01)。【结论】短期饲喂含SDF或IDF饲粮明显改变生长猪后肠微生物组成和短链脂肪酸浓度。

关键词: 纤维, 生长猪, 微生物群落结构, SCFAs

Abstract: 【Objective】 The aim of this study was to explore the effects of two different types of dietary fibers, typically soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), on the growth performance and microbial community and metabolites of growing pigs and providing reference for the fiber selection in pig production. 【Method】 A total of 16 healthy (40.38±1.19) kg growing Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire barrows were randomly allocated to 2 groups, SDF and IDF. The diet for SDF group contained 7.14% oat β-glucan (purity≥70% ), while the diet for IDF group contained 5.05% MCC (purity≥99%). The whole experiment lasted for 21 days. The rectal content of each pig was obtained for bacterial community and main metabolic products (short chain fatty acids, SCFAs) analyses. 【Result】①The final body weight, ADG and ADFI of pigs showed no significantly differences between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the IDF group, the F/G of pigs in SDF was lower (0.05<P<0.1). ②Cluster analysis based on DGGE showed that samples collected on day 1 and 21 from the two groups were distinctly separated into two clades, respectively. The bacterial Shannon index in the rectum of SDF-fed pigs showed decreased at the end of the experiment, and there was a contrary change in IDF-fed pigs. ③According to real-time PCR result, the number of total bacteria (P<0.01), phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus (P<0.05) were significantly decreased in the rectum of pigs after a 21-day consuming of SDF containing diet. Meanwhile, the amount of Escherichia coli was significantly increased (P<0.01) and the number of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and Bifidobacterium showed an increasing trend (P<0.1), and a decreasing trend (P<0.1) was observed of the methanogens in the hindgut of these pigs. On the other hand, the number of Firmicutes significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the rectum of pigs fed IDF containing diet, and the numbers of both genus Prevotella and Escherichia coli were significantly increased (P<0.05). ④At the end of the experiment, the concentration of acetate in the rectal contents of pigs in SDF group was significantly decreased (P<0.05), with a tended decrease of propionate and total SCFAs (P<0.1). Nevertheless, the concentration of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the ratio of acetate/propionate (P<0.05), as well as the content of total SCFAs (P<0.01) showed significantly lower in the rectum of pigs in IDF group. 【Conclusion】 In the current study, the microbial community and the concentration of SCFAs were obviously altered by the short-term ingestion of SDF- or IDF-containing feed.

Key words: dietary fiber, growing pigs, microbial community, SCFAs

中图分类号: 

  • S828