四川农业大学学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (06): 729-736.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2018.06.003

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控释氮肥比例对玉米氮代谢关键酶活性及干物质积累的影响

金容, 郭萍, 周芳, 杜伦静, 刘斌祥, 孔凡磊, 袁继超*   

  1. 四川农业大学农学院/农业部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,成都 611130
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-14 出版日期:2018-12-28 发布日期:2021-03-01
  • 通讯作者: 袁继超, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事作物高产优质高效栽培技术研究, E-mail:yuanjichao5@163.com。
  • 作者简介:金容,硕士研究生。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300209);公益性行业(农业)科研专项(20150312705);国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2012BAD04B00)。

Effects of Controlled-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Ratio on the Nitrogen Metabolism Key Enzymes Activities and Dry Matter Accumulation of Maize

JIN Rong, GUO Ping, ZHOU Fang, DU Lunjing, LIU Binxiang, KONG Fanlei, YUAN Jichao*   

  1. College of Agriculture, Sichuan Agriculture University/Key Laboratory of Agriculture Ministry of Crop Physiology,Ecology and Cultivation in Southwest China, Chengdu 611130, China
  • Received:2018-06-14 Online:2018-12-28 Published:2021-03-01

摘要: 【目的】旨在筛选川中丘陵地区最佳控释氮肥掺混比例,为控释氮肥的合理施用和推广提供理论参考。【方法】通过大田试验,以普通尿素和控释尿素为供试材料,研究不同控释尿素与普通尿素掺混比例对玉米氮代谢关键酶活性及干物质积累与分配的影响。【结果】与常规施肥(100%普通尿素,CK)相比,普通尿素和控释尿素配施可提高玉米吐丝期和灌浆期功能叶氮代谢关键酶活性,以25%普通尿素+75%控释尿素处理活性提高显著。适宜比例的控释氮肥处理可在一定程度上提高玉米拔节-吐丝期和吐丝-成熟期植株氮素积累量,促进玉米吐丝后营养器官干物质向籽粒转移,最终提高籽粒干物质分配比例。随控释尿素比例的增加,玉米产量、百粒重、穗粒数、穗长和穗粗均呈先升后降的趋势,产量构成因素中增加穗粒数和百粒重的优势较大;与常规施肥CK相比,25%、50%、75%和100%的控释尿素比例施肥处理分别增产0.59%、3.95%、10.51%和3.84%,其中以75%控释尿素比例处理增产效果最为明显。相关分析表明,玉米产量与灌浆期功能叶氮代谢关键酶活性(除谷氨酸合酶)、氮素积累总量以及干物质积累总量均呈显著或极显著正相关关系。【结论】综合植株物质积累与产量表现,普通尿素掺混75%比例的控释尿素处理为本试验的最佳处理。

关键词: 普通尿素, 控释尿素, 玉米, 关键酶活性, 氮素积累, 干物质积累, 产量

Abstract: 【Objective】 The aim was to screen the optimal controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer blending ratio in hilly areas of central Sichuan,and provide theoretical reference for the rational application and popularization of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer.【Method】 Through a field experiment,using con- ventional urea(CU) and controlled-release urea(CRU) as test materials,the effects of different mixing ratios of CRU and CU on the nitrogen metabolism key enzymes activities and dry matter accumulation and distribution of maize (Zea mays L.) were studied. 【Result】 The results showed that compared with conventional fertilization(100% CU,CK),the combined application of CU and CRU increased nitrogen metabolism key enzymes activities of functional leaf at silking stage and filling stage,and the activity of 25%CU+75%CRU treatment increased significantly. Appropriate proportion of CRU increased maize nitrogen accumulation to some extent at jointing-silking stage and silking-maturity stage,promoted the transfer of dry matter from vegetative organs to grain after silking,and ultimately improved grain dry matter distribution ratio. With the increased in the proportion of CRU, the maize yield,100-grain weight, grain number per ear, ear length and ear diameter were increased firstly and then decreased,the advantage of increasing grain number per ear and 100-grain weight in yield components was greater. Compared with CK, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% CRU treatments increased yield by 0.59%,3.95%, 10.51% and 3.84%, respectively, among which the effect of 75% CRU ratio treatment was the most obvious. The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant or highly significant positive correlation between maize yield and nitrogen metabolism key enzyme activities (except glutamate synthase) of the filling stage, total nitrogen accumulation, and total dry matter accumulation. 【Conclusion】 Therefore, according to the plant material accumulation and yield performance, the treatment of 75% CRU mixed with 25% CU was the best treatment in this experiment.

Key words: conventional urea, controlled-release urea, maize, key enzyme activity, nitrogen accumulation, dry matter accumulation, yield

中图分类号: 

  • S513