›› 2017, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (02): 167-171.

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种植密度及行距配置对直播油菜农艺性状和产量品质的影响

段秋宇1,廖方全1,2,刘士山1,3,蒲晓斌1,4,吴永成1   

  1. 1. 四川农业大学
    2. 广汉市农业局
    3. 农学院
    4. 四川省农业科学院作物研究所
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-08 修回日期:2017-05-16 出版日期:2017-06-30 发布日期:2018-11-29
  • 通讯作者: 吴永成 E-mail:ycwu2002@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    四川省育种攻关栽培项目

Effects of Plant Density and row spacing on Agronomic Traits, Yield and Seed Quality in directly-sown Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

  • Received:2016-10-08 Revised:2017-05-16 Online:2017-06-30 Published:2018-11-29
  • Contact: WU YongCheng E-mail:ycwu2002@163.com

摘要: 【目的】旨在构建四川盆地直播油菜适宜机收的高产群体结构。【方法】本文于2013/2014、2014/2015年选用中熟杂交油菜品种川油36,在成都平原区系统研究了不同种植密度(15×104~60×104株/hm2)及行距配置(20cm、30cm、40cm、40+20cm)对直播油菜农艺性状和产量品质的影响。【结果】种植密度对直播油菜农艺性状有重要影响,增密处理(30~60万株/hm2)的主序角果所占比例(%)明显提高。随种植密度的加大(15~60万株/hm2),籽粒产量呈先升、后降趋势,密度在30万株/hm2时产量最高,继续增加密度(60万株/hm2),籽粒产量则显著降低。种植密度对籽粒品质的影响不显著。相同密度(30~36万株/hm2)下,不同行距配置(20cm、30cm、40cm、40+20cm)对直播油菜农艺性状和籽粒产量均无显著影响,但较宽的行距配置(30cm、40cm)的主序角果数和产量均明显高于窄行距(20cm),籽粒含油率则显著高于窄行距(20cm)。【结论】在充足施肥条件下,直播油菜适宜机收和高产的种植密度为30~36万株/hm2,行距配置以等行距30~40cm为宜,或采用宽窄行40+20cm。

关键词: 关键词:直播油菜, 种植密度, 行距配置, 农艺性状, 产量, 品质

Abstract: 【Objective】The aim of this study is to establish a high yield population structure suitable for mechanical harvest in Sichuan basin.【Method】Field experiments were conducted in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 on the Chengdu Plain to study the effects of different planting densities (15×104 ~60×104 plants /hm2 ) and row spacing (20cm、30cm、40cm、40+20cm) on agronomic traits, yield and quality of seed under directly-sown cultivation in rapeseed using cultivar “Chuanyou36” ( Brassica napus L.).【Result】An important influence of plant density was observed on agronomic traits and the ratio of pods on the main inflorescence was obviously improved in higher plant densities(30×104 ~ 60×104 plant/hm2). Seed yield of directly-sown rapeseed first increased and then decreased as plant density continuously increased (15×104 ~ 60×104 plant/hm2). The highest seed yield was obtained at the plant density of 30×104 plants/hm2 and it significantly decreased when plant density increased to 60×104 plants/hm2. The effect of plant density on seed quality was not significant. There were no significant differences in agronomic traits and seed yield among different row spacing (20cm、30cm、40cm、40+20cm) under the same plant density (30~36×104 plant /hm2). Seed yield, number of main inflorescence pods and seed oil content in the middle or wide spacing treatments (30cm、40cm) were obviously or significantly higher than in the narrow spacing treatment (20cm) .【Conclusion】Therefore, higher planting density(30~36×104 plant /hm2)with middle or wide row spacing (30~40cm, 40+20cm ) was favorable for mechanical harvest cultivation and for high yield in directly-sown rapeseed under adequate fertilization conditions on the Chengdu Plain of Sichuan Province.

Key words: Directly-sown Rapeseed, Planting density, Row spacing, Agronomic traits, Yield, Seed quality