四川农业大学学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (04): 376-381.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2650.2014.04.004

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风沙区超大工作面开采对土壤及植物特性的影响

魏婷婷1, 胡振琪1, 曹远博2, 李星宇1, 袁玉敏1, 林杉1   

  1. 1. 中国矿业大学(北京)土地复垦与生态重建研究所, 北京 100083;
    2. 北京林业大学水土保持与荒漠化防治教育部重点实验室, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-05 出版日期:2014-12-31 发布日期:2017-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 胡振琪,教授,博士生导师,研究方向:土地复垦与生态重建,E-mail:huzq@cumtb.edu.cn。 E-mail:huzq@cumtb.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:魏婷婷,博士生,研究方向:土地复垦与生态重建,E-mail:sally1988tt@foxmail.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金委员会-神华集团有限公司煤炭联合基金资助项目(U1361203)

Impacts of Large Coal Mining on Soil and Plant Characteristics in Sandy Area

WEI Ting-ting1, HU Zhen-qi1, CAO Yuan-bo2, LI Xing-yu1, YUAN Yu-min1, LIN Shan1   

  1. 1. Institute of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Combating of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2014-11-05 Online:2014-12-31 Published:2017-02-28

摘要: [目的] 对毛乌素风沙区超大工作面开采当年和沉陷一年后的裂缝区和采空区的土壤理化性质和植物生长生理指标随时间的变化进行分析研究,为矿区生态的自我修复研究提供科学依据。[方法] 通过样地调查和室内元素含量分析,并利用ANOVA方差分析和LSD最小显著差异法对数据进行统计分析。[结果] 结果表明:开采当年裂缝区和采空区土壤含水率都与对照组存在显著差异,而沉陷一年只有裂缝区的含水率和对照组存在显著差异,土壤具有自我修复的能力,采空区的修复速度和修复能力都强于裂缝区;沉陷一年裂缝区、采空区和对照组的土壤pH值与开采当年比较无显著差异,开采当年和沉陷一年后土壤的全氮、速效磷、速效钾含量显著低于对照组,沉陷一年裂缝区、采空区的全氮、速效磷、速效钾元素含量较开采当年显著提高;受土壤环境影响最大的是乔木,其次是灌木,草本受环境影响最小,并且其恢复速度最快。[结论] 植物在土壤水肥环境剧变后,促使植物对环境重新适应并对土壤环境进行修复,修复能力表现为:草本 > 灌木 > 乔木。

关键词: 毛乌素沙地, 风沙区, 超大工作面, 开采, 土壤, 植物

Abstract: [Objective] The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for ecological restoration in mining area through investigating the soil physi-chemical properties and plant physiological and growth traits in large cracks and mined-out area after 1year of mining in the Mu Us sandland. [Method] ANOVA and least significant difference (LSD)was used to analyze the data based on plot survey and indoor element content analysis. [Results] The results showed that soil water content in the crack and mined-out areas in mining period had significant differences compared to control group.Significant differences in soil water content was only found between crack area and control after 1year of subsidence.Soil physical properties had the ability to repair themselves.The repairing speed and ability were stronger in the mined-out area than in the crack area.There were no significant differences in soil pH value among crack area,mined-out area and control area after 1year of subsidence.Soil total nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium contents were significantly lower in the mining period and 1year of subsidence compared tocontrol group.These indexes in the crack and mined-out areas after 1year of subsidence were significantly higher relative to mining period. [Conclusion] Plants adapted to the environments due to changes in soil water and nutrients and plants in turn restored the soil environments.The order of restoration capacity was herb > shrub > tree.

Key words: Mu Us sandland, sandy area, ultra wide fully-mechanized, coal mining, soil, plant

中图分类号: 

  • TD88