四川农业大学学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (04): 369-375.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2650.2014.04.003

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人工生物质结皮在黄土山区公路边坡应用的初探

舒鑫1, 王百田1, 曹远博1, 魏婷婷2, 王鲜鲜3   

  1. 1. 北京林业大学水土保持学院, 北京 100083;
    2. 中国矿业大学(北京)土地复垦与生态重建研究所, 北京 100083;
    3. 深圳铁汉生态环境股份有限公司, 深圳 518000
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-20 出版日期:2014-12-31 发布日期:2017-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 王百田,教授,博士生导师,研究方向:水土保持,林业生态工程,E-mail:wbaitian@bjfu.edu.cn。 E-mail:wbaitian@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:舒鑫,硕士研究生。
  • 基金资助:
    国家"十二五"科技支撑课题"晋西黄土丘陵沟壑区节水防蚀水土保持林研究与示范"(2011BAD38B0602)

The Application of Artificial Biological Crust in the Highway Slope of Loess Mountainous Area

SHU Xin1, WANG Bai-tian1, CAO Yuan-bo1, WEI Ting-ting2, WANG Xian-xian3   

  1. 1. College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China;
    2. Institute of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China;
    3. Shenzhen techand ecological environment co., LTD, Shenzhen 518000, China
  • Received:2014-11-20 Online:2014-12-31 Published:2017-02-28

摘要: [目的] 探讨人工结皮在黄土山区公路边坡的应用效果。[方法] 选用吕梁山区人为破坏过的公路边坡进行治理,设置5个试验组(T1自然边坡、T2结皮、T3结皮+肥料、T4结皮+种子、T5结皮+肥料+种子)。对每个试验组的土壤温湿度、土壤细沟侵蚀、植物生长状况(植物出苗株数、覆盖度、Shannon-weaver多样性指数、Shannon-wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数)和生物量进行观测。[结果] 结果表明,人工结皮与自然边坡比较,春季结皮可以显著(P<0.05)提高土壤的温度和湿度,雨季结皮能够维持土壤的温度,正午结皮温度显著低于自然边坡的,全天结皮组的土壤湿度显著高于自然边坡,其中T5的土壤湿度最大;公路边坡受雨水的侵蚀程度存在:T5 < T4 < T3 < T2 < T1,推断可能是结皮材料的性质减少了坡面侵蚀沟的形成;人工结皮能够提高公路边坡土壤种子的发芽率和对土壤种子库的利用效率,结皮组的物种多样性、均匀度和地上鲜重生物量均高于自然边坡,T5、T4、T3和T2的地上鲜重生物量分别是T1的2.44、1.99、1.95和1.68倍。[结论] 人工生物质结皮通过保水、保土和稳定土壤温湿度的作用,可以提高土壤种子库的利用效率,丰富坡面的生物多样性,提高坡面覆盖度,最终达到对黄土山区公路边坡稳固和绿化。

关键词: 人工生物质结皮, 黄土山区, 公路边坡, 种子库, 生物多样性, 生物量

Abstract: [Objective] The aim of the study was to evaluate the application of artificial crust in the highway slope of loess mountainous area. [Method] In the highway slope of the Lvliang mountains,5 experimental groups (natural slope (T1),crust (T2),crust and fertilizer (T3),crust and seeds (T4),curst,fertilizer and seeds (T5))were set.Temperature and humidity of soil,rill erosion of soil and plant growth condition (plant emergence,coverage,Shannon weaver diversity index,Shannon wiener diversity index and the Pielou evenness index)were investigated. [Results] Compared with the natural slope,artificial crust increased soil temperature and humidity in Spring and maintained soil temperature in the rainy season.The temperature of crust was significantly lower than that of the natural slope at noon.Soil moistures of crust groups were significantly higher than that of natural slope throughout the day and T5 was the highest.The order of erosion degree was T5 < T4 < T3 < T2 < T1.It was possible that crust reduced the formation oferosion gully.Artificial crust improved soil seed germination rate and utilization efficiency of soil seed banks.The species diversity,evenness and fresh weight biomass of crust groups were higher compared to the natural slope.The aboveground fresh biomass of T5,T4,T3 and T2 was 2.44,1.99,1.95 and 1.68 times larger than T1. [Conclusion] Therefore,artificial biomass skin increased soil seed banks,biodiversity and coverage by improving soil temperature,humidity and stability.Thus,it could enhance the steady and greening of road slope in the loess mountainous area.

Key words: artificial biological crust, loess mountainous area, highway slope, soil seed bank, biodiversity, biomass

中图分类号: 

  • S157.9