四川农业大学学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (02): 126-133.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2650.2014.02.002

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优化栽培措施对三峡糯一号主要生理指标和产量的影响

谢必武1, 张凤龙1, 张甲2, 晏承兴2, 张世平2   

  1. 1. 重庆三峡职业学院, 重庆 万州 404155;
    2. 重庆三峡农业科学院, 重庆 万州 404155
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-03 出版日期:2014-06-30 发布日期:2017-02-28
  • 作者简介:谢必武,教授,主要从事作物栽培研究,E-mail:cqxiebw@163.com。
  • 基金资助:
    重庆高等职业技术院校应用技术推广中心项目:高产优质抗逆糯稻新品种三峡糯一号中试与示范(项目编号:TG1310002)

Effects of Optimized Cultivation Measures on Physiological Index and Yield of Sanxia Glutinous-1 Rice

XIE Bi-wu1, ZHANG Feng-long1, ZHANG Jia2, YAN Cheng-xing2, ZHANG Shi-ping2   

  1. 1. Chongqing Three Gorges Polytechnic College, Wanzhou 404155, Chongqing, China;
    2. Chongqing Three Gorges Academy of Agricultural Science, Wanzhou 404155, Chongqing, China
  • Received:2014-04-03 Online:2014-06-30 Published:2017-02-28

摘要: [目的] 探明早熟糯稻新品种三峡糯一号的配套栽培技术及高产机理。[方法] 应用三因素二次正交回归旋转组合设计,建立了栽插密度、施氮量、移栽叶龄与三峡糯一号根系活力、剑叶光合速率、基部叶片叶绿素含量、基部叶片POD酶活性等主要生理指标的数学模型,并通过模拟寻优出优化栽培措施方案。[结果] 施氮量是影响三峡糯一号生理指标的主要因素,增大施氮量(137.55~172.50 kg/hm2)可提高水稻根系活力,基部叶片叶绿素含量增加,剑叶光合速率高,但施氮量少(34.96~86.25 kg/hm2)能促进POD酶活性,过大的施氮量(超过137.55 kg/hm2)又会抑制POD酶活性;低密度(15.00~18.75万穴/hm2)可促进水稻根系活力的增加、剑叶光合速率高、加速光合物的转化,而高密度(28.13~37.50万穴/hm2)抑制水稻根系活力的增加、剑叶光合速率低、光合物转化减慢、不利于产量的形成;小苗秧(3.0~5.0叶)叶片叶绿素合成速度快,大苗秧(7.0~8.5叶)叶片叶绿素合成速度减慢;栽插密度和施氮量在低水平(-1.682~0)水平区间,其增产效果非常明显,原因在于二者对POD酶活性、根系活力的促进及加速光合物转化。[结论] 三峡糯一号高产组合方案为:栽插密度22.53~24.45万穴/hm2、施氮量131.23~136.11 kg/hm2、栽插叶龄为5.07~6.17叶。在这样的栽培措施下,三峡糯一号有95%的把握可达到根系活力大于27.31 μg/(gFW·h)、剑叶光合速率大于3.43 CO2 mg/(dm2·h)、基部叶片叶绿素高于23.88 mg/g、基部叶片POD酶含量高于23.88 POD470/(g·min)的高产生理指标和产量在8 362.87 kg/hm2以上。

关键词: 三峡糯一号, 生理指标, 密度, 施氮量, 叶龄, 优化措施

Abstract: [Objective] Our aim of the study was to explore the cultivation techniques of the new early-ripening rice of Sanxia glutinous-1 and to suggest mechanisms of high yield. [Method] A three factors (transplanting density,nitrogen addition and leaf age) and two orthogonal regression rotation combination design was used in this study.Some physiological index,root vigor,photosynthetic rate of sword leaves and chlorophyll content and POD activity of basal was estimated.The optimization cultivation measures were obtained based on mathematical simulation. [Results] Nitrogen was the key factor affecting physiological index of Sanxia glutinous-1.Nitrogen application rate from 137.55 to 172.50 kg/hm2 improved root activity,chlorophyll content of basal leaves and photosynthetic rate flag leaf.But nitrogen applidtion rates between 34.96 and 86.25 kg/hm2 promoted POD activity.More than 137.55 kg/hm2 nitrogen inhibited POD activity.Low density (150 000-187 500 poin t/hm2)increased root activity,flag leaf photosynthetic rate and transformation of photosynthetic matter.However,high density (281 300-375 000 poin t/hm2)decreased root activity,flag leaf photosynthetic rate,transformation of photosynthetic matter and yield formation.Leaf chlorophyll synthesis was fast in small seedlings with 3.0-5.0leaves but the opposite was true for big seedlings with 7.0-8.5leaves.when planting density and nitrogen application rate were at a low interval (-1.682-0),effects of increasing yield was very obvious.This was mainly because they together promote root activity,POD activity and photosynthetic conversion. [Conclusion] The schemes of high yield in Sanxia glutinous-1were shown as followed:Planting density 225 300-244 500 poin t/hm2,nitrogen application 131.23-136.11 kg/hm2 and leaf age of 5.07-6.17.Under the cultivation measures,95% confidence could be reached in the following parameters:Root activity > 27.31 μg/(gFW·h),photosynthetic rate of flag leaf > 3.43 CO2 mg/(dm2·h),chlorophyll of basal leaves > 23.88 mg/g,POD content of basal leaves > 23.88 POD470/(g·min) and the yield > 8 362.87 kg/hm2.

Key words: Sanxia nuo 1, physiological index, density, nitrogen application rate, leaf age, the optimization measures

中图分类号: 

  • S511.06