四川农业大学学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (01): 1-6.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2650.2012.01.001

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施氮方式对川中丘陵区玉米产量和氮肥利用的影响

吴永成1,2, 尹传春1, 董云章3, 陈明祥3, 袁继超1,2   

  1. 1. 四川农业大学农学院, 四川 温江 611130;
    2. 农业部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室, 四川 温江 611130;
    3. 四川省射洪县农业局, 四川 射洪 629200
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-21 出版日期:2012-03-31 发布日期:2017-02-28
  • 作者简介:吴永成,博士,副教授,主要从事农业生态及作物栽培研究,E-mail:ycwu2002@163.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划(2008BAD98B00,2012BAD04B13);国家产业技术体系四川玉米创新团队

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization Methods on Yield and Nitrogen Utilization of Maize in the Hilly Area of Sichuan

WU Yong-cheng1,2, YIN Chuan-chun1, DONG Yun-zhang3, CHEN Ming-xiang3, YUAN Ji-chao1,2   

  1. 1. College of Agriculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Ministry of P. R. China, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China;
    3. Bureau of Agriculture of Shehong County, Shehong 629200, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2011-12-21 Online:2012-03-31 Published:2017-02-28
  • Contact: 袁继超,教授,主要从事作物栽培研究,E-mail:yuanjichao5@163.com。 E-mail:yuanjichao5@163.com

摘要: 主要探讨适合川中丘陵区地膜移栽玉米的高产高效施肥方式,采用田间试验,以不施氮处理为对照,在当地习惯施氮量(300kg N/hm2)的条件下,设置了4种不同施氮方式(SF:复合肥+普通尿素+碳铵一次性底施;DF:复合肥+普通尿素+碳铵分底追肥两次施用;BN:包膜尿素缓释氮肥一次性底施;PN:包膜尿素+普通尿素一次性底施)。结果显示增施氮肥相比不施氮处理有显著的增产效应(14.57%),平均氮肥利用率、氮肥农学效率和氮肥偏生产力分别为15.35%、2.75kg/kg N和21.65kg/kg N。普通氮肥分底追两次施用(DF)处理的氮肥利用率、氮肥农学效率和氮肥偏生产力均明显高于氮肥一次性底施的处理(PN、BN、SF)。而在氮肥一次性底施处理中,氮肥利用率、氮肥农学效率和氮肥偏生产力均表现为PN处理 >BN处理 >SF处理。DF处理的植株干重和氮素积累量(TNAA)明显高于氮肥一次性底施处理(SF、BN、PN),但在干物质与氮素转移方面的差异并不显著。相同施氮量条件下,普通氮肥分底追两次施用(DF)方式可获得高产;从节约劳动力和简化施肥角度看,则宜采用包膜尿素与普通尿素配合(PN)的氮肥一次性底施方式。

关键词: 玉米, 施氮方式, 籽粒产量, 植株氮素积累, 氮肥利用效率

Abstract: For study on the nitrogen fertilization method of high yield or high efficiency, a field experiment was conducted in the hilly area of Sichuan to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer application methods on yield, nitrogen absorption and utilization of transplanted maize with plastic mulch. The experiment was designed with four nitrogen fertilizer application methods(SF: normal nitrogen fertilizer single basal application;DF: normal nitrogen fertilizer applied with basal+topdressing;BN: coated-urea single basal application;PN: coated-urea+normal-urea single basal application) under the same N application rates(N 300 kg/hm2) and one blank control treatment(without N fertilizer). The results indicated that the yield of nitrogen fertilizer application treatment was increased significantly(P<0.05) and average nitrogen recovery efficiency(REN), nitrogen agronomic efficiency(AEN), nitrogen partial factor productivity(REPN) were 15.35%, 2.75 kg/kg N and 21.65 kg/kg N compared with CK. REN, AEN and REPN of DF treatment were obviously higher than those treatments of N fertilizer single basal application(PN, BN, SF). But in the treatments of N fertilizer single basal application, REN, AEN and REPN were showed the tendency of PN > BN > SF. Plant dry matter and N accumulation amount(TNAA) of DF treatment were higher than the treatments of N fertilizer single basal application(PN, BN, SF) obviously. But there was no significant difference of plant dry matter and N translocation within different nitrogen fertilizer application methods. In conclusion, under this field experiment conditions, normal nitrogen fertilizer applied with basal+topdressing(DF) treatment was the better nitrogen fertilizer application methods if we only consider yield, but as far as yield, saving labor force and simplification of N application are concerned, coated-urea+normal urea(PN) treatment of N fertilizer single basal application was suggested.

Key words: maize, nitrogen fertilization methods, grain yield, plant N accumulation, nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency

中图分类号: 

  • S513.062