四川农业大学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (01): 67-72.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2016.01.012

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不同种植年限蔬菜地土壤养分变化规律研究

宁德富1, 孔丽琼2, 汤娜1, 周萍1   

  1. 1. 西双版纳职业技术学院, 云南 景洪 666100;
    2. 景洪市土壤肥料工作站, 云南 景洪 666100
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-23 发布日期:2016-02-29
  • 作者简介:宁德富,硕士,讲师,主要从事土壤与肥料,蔬菜栽培方面的教学与科研工作,E-mail:ningdefu@163.com。
  • 基金资助:
    云南省教育厅科学研究基金项目(2014Y594)

Variations of Soil Nutrients in Vegetable Garden with Different Cultivation Years

NING De-fu1, KONG Li-qiong2, TANG Na1, ZHOU Ping1   

  1. 1. Xishuangbanna Vocational and Technical College, Jinghong 666100, Yunnan, China;
    2. Jinghong Soil and Fertilizer Station, Jinghong 666100, Yunnan, China
  • Received:2015-07-23 Published:2016-02-29

摘要: [目的] 调查西双版纳地区蔬菜主要种植基地的土壤养分状况,为蔬菜地土壤养分的合理、科学管理提供理论依据。[方法] 通过田间调查与取样分析相结合的方法进行。[结果] ①随种植水稻年限的延长,土壤pH值和土壤碱解氮含量呈逐年平缓下降趋势,土壤有机质、有效磷和速效钾含量均呈逐年平缓增加趋势,土壤有效养分逐年平衡;②随种植蔬菜年限的延长,土壤pH值、有机质含量均呈逐年显著下降趋势,而且种植蔬菜年限越长,下降趋势越显著。土壤碱解氮、有效磷和速效钾含量呈极显著上升趋势,而且种植年限越长,平均每年增加量越大;③种植蔬菜的土壤,在氮、磷、钾三种元素中,土壤有效磷平均每年增加率最大,速效钾次之,碱解氮最小,导致土壤有效养分失衡。[结论] 种植蔬菜导致土壤有机质含量逐年减少,土壤酸性逐年增强,土壤中氮、磷、钾有效养分含量逐年增加,且养分失衡。

关键词: 蔬菜地, 水稻田, 种植年限, 土壤养分, 养分变化规律

Abstract: [Objective] The objective of the study was to investigate soil nitrients in main vegetable bases of Xishuangbanna of Yunnan province, and to provide scientific theories for soil management of vegetable garden. [Method] The methods of field investigation and sampling were used in this study. [Results] ① In rice field, the values of soil pH and available nitrogen(N) declined smoothly with cultivation years but the indices of soil available phosphorus(P), available potassium(K) and organic matter(OM) increased. As a result, a balance tendency of soil nutrient appeared in rice field. ② In vegetable garden, the soil pH and OM decreased significantly with cultivation years. However, the contents of available N, P and K increased significantly. ③ The annual increase of available P was the most obvious, followed by available K and N in vegetable garden. This phenomenon resulted in a soil nutrient imbalance. [Conclusion] The content of soil organic matter decreased year by year but soil acidity, available N, P and K increased gradually in vegetable gardens, which could eventually lead to a imbalance of soil nutrient.

Key words: vegetable garden, rice field, cultivation years, soil nutrients, variation laws of soil nutrients

中图分类号: 

  • S626