四川农业大学学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (04): 303-316.doi: 10.16036/j.issn.1000-2650.2001.04.004

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微卫星的起源、作用以及在基因组中的分布与进化动力学

李有春   

  1. 亚利桑那大学 生态学与进化生物学系, 美国 图森 AZ85721-0088
  • 收稿日期:2001-07-01 出版日期:2001-12-31 发布日期:2017-03-06

Microsatellites: Genesis, Genomic Distribution, Function and Evolutionary Dynamics

LI You-chun   

  1. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, The University of Arizona, BSW 136, P. O. Box 210088, Tucson, AZ 85721-0088, USA
  • Received:2001-07-01 Online:2001-12-31 Published:2017-03-06

摘要: 微卫星,即简单重复序列(SSR,1~6个碱基单元),广泛存在于基因组中,具有丰富的多态性。本文对SSR的起源与可移动因子(如逆转录转座子)之间的联系进行了探讨和分析,表明许多SSR的起源与逆转录转座子有关。同时分析了SSR在基因表达、染色质的结构、重组、DNA的复制和细胞周期等方面的重要作用,结果表明SSR是使有机组织的正常生长和保持种族特异性的重要DNA片段。就SSR的进化机制而言,跳跃复制和重组是产生SSR变异的内因;相反,通过不同形式的自然选择使得SSR广布于整个基因组,并且限定重复片段大小的上、下限临界值以及位点专一性变异和群体差异。

关键词: 微卫星, SSR起源, 基因组分布, 功能, 进化

Abstract: Microsatellites, tandem Simple Sequence Repeats(SSR, 1~6 bp motif) are abundant across the genome and show high levels of polymorphism. This review discusses the association of SSR genesis with mobile elments as retroposons, suggests that most SSR genesis may be related to retroposons. This review also summarizes the evidence related to SSR functional importance in regulation of gene expression, chromatin organization, recombination, DNA replication, cell cycle, etc. These evidence indicates that SSRs are very important DNA fragments for organism's normal growth and keeping species-specific characteristics. SSR evolutionary mechanisms are also reviewed here:The internal mechanisms(replication slippage and recombination) create SSR variations, and the external forces, such as natural selection through different forms of natural selection, may shape SSR distribution across genome, and constrain repeated sizes at both the upper and lower thresholds, locus-specific variation and population differentiation.

Key words: MICROSATELLITE, SSR GENESIS, GENOMIC DIST IBUTION, FUNCTION, EVOLUTION

中图分类号: 

  • Q75